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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-age children.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article was to investigate the association between convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and symptoms in a group of school-aged children. METHODS: Children ages 8 to 15 years were recruited from two public and 2 private elementary schools in Southern California. The CI Symptom Survey (CISS) was administered to all children before a Modified Clinical Technique vision screening. Children with normal visual acuity, minimal uncorrected refractive error, and no strabismus were tested for CI and Al. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty nine children were initially screened and 392 participated in testing for CI and AI. Fifty-five percent of the children (218) were classified as having normal binocular vision (NBV), 4.6% (18) had three signs of CI, 12.7% (50) had two signs of CI, 10.5% (41) were classified as AI (with no signs of CI), and 16.6% (65) were classified as other. The symptom score was 3.78 for the NBV group, 4.6 for the two-sign CI group, 6.67 for the three-sign CI group, and 6.37 for the Al group. The three-sign CI and the Al groups scored significantly higher than the NBV group on the CISS (p < or = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CI and AI are common conditions in school-age children and are associated with increased symptoms.[1]


  1. Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-age children. Borsting, E., Rouse, M.W., Deland, P.N., Hovett, S., Kimura, D., Park, M., Stephens, B. Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) (2003) [Pubmed]
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