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MeSH Review

Refractive Errors

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Disease relevance of Refractive Errors


Psychiatry related information on Refractive Errors


High impact information on Refractive Errors

  • This experimental refractive error has many features in common with human myopia: It is caused by progressive axial elongation of the eye, is often accompanied by fundus changes, and can only be induced before eye growth has been completed [8].
  • PURPOSE: Refractive errors, myopia, and hyperopia are common conditions requiring corrective lenses [9].
  • While the relative contribution of NOP in determining refractive error is small, it is greater in older persons compared to younger individuals [10].
  • RESULTS: The Phe(6)-antagonist at 10(-5) M (in the syringe) inhibited changes in both refractive error and axial length compensation induced by +7-D lens wear; however, des-Phe(6)-antagonist (10(-5) M) had weak, inconsistent effects and did not antagonize the action of exogenous glucagon [11].
  • None of the peptides significantly affected refractive error in eyes with unrestricted vision, although changes in anterior and posterior eye growth were observed in response to glucagon, oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and miniglucagon [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Refractive Errors

  • Although tropicamide, as expected, showed poorer cycloplegia compared to cyclopentolate, the degree of difference appeared to be small, with minimal effect on the measurement of distance refractive error and the ocular optical components [13].
  • To evaluate the cycloplegic effect of 1% tropicamide in myopic children and to determine whether its efficacy is associated with age, gender, iris color, ethnicity, magnitude of the refractive error, or latent error [14].
  • In a subsample of children without myopia who had refractive errors less than +0.75 D, having a response AC/A ratio of 5.84 delta/D or more elevated the risk of development of myopia within 1 year by 3.21 times (95% CI = 1.14-9.07) [15].
  • Hydrogel keratophakia is a new form of lamellar refractive surgery which, in theory, can deal with almost all forms of refractive error [16].
  • The Canon CF6OU, Canon CF6OS, Canon CR4-45NM, Nidek 3-DX, Olympus GRCW, and Carl Zeiss Jena Retinophot were found not to be telecentric and exhibited a linear relationship between p and degree of ametropia of the model eye [17].

Biological context of Refractive Errors


Anatomical context of Refractive Errors


Gene context of Refractive Errors

  • RESULTS: All four members of this family affected by LCA showed high to extreme hyperopia, with average spherical refractive errors ranging from +5.00 to +10.00 [25].
  • The present study sought to determine whether endogenous FGF-2 was associated with retinoscleral signalling or scleral remodelling during changes in refractive error in a mammalian model of myopia [26].
  • Recent independent studies in Davis, Calif., and Cardiff, Wales, indicate that part of these variations are related to refractive errors [27].
  • Using the average postoperative keratometry readings from other recent transplant cases and an updated A constant in the SRK regression formula would have placed 39 of 43 eyes (91%) within 2 D of emmetropia with a mean refractive error of -0.07 D [28].
  • PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen eyes of 12 patients received LASIK (performed using the VISX Star laser [VISX, Santa Ana, CA]) with a planned 180- micro m flap (created using an automated Hansatome microkeratome [Bausch & Lomb, Irvine, CA]) to correct refractive errors between -2.0 diopters (D) and -11.0 D [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Refractive Errors


  1. Hyperacuity and amblyopia. Levi, D.M., Klein, S. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Normal emmetropization in infants with spectacle correction for hyperopia. Atkinson, J., Anker, S., Bobier, W., Braddick, O., Durden, K., Nardini, M., Watson, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Murthy, G.V., Gupta, S.K., Ellwein, L.B., Muñoz, S.R., Pokharel, G.P., Sanga, L., Bachani, D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Myopia associated with retinopathy of prematurity. Gordon, R.A., Donzis, P.B. Ophthalmology (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevalence of ocular diagnoses found on screening 1539 adults with intellectual disabilities. van Splunder, J., Stilma, J.S., Bernsen, R.M., Evenhuis, H.M. Ophthalmology (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Asteroid hyalosis in a population: the Beaver Dam eye study. Moss, S.E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The prevalence of ocular defects and the provision of eye care in adults with learning disabilities living in the community. Woodhouse, J.M., Griffiths, C., Gedling, A. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. An animal model of myopia. Raviola, E., Wiesel, T.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Support for polygenic influences on ocular refractive error. Klein, A.P., Duggal, P., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., Klein, B.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Refractive error, ocular biometry, and lens opalescence in an adult population: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Shufelt, C., Fraser-Bell, S., Ying-Lai, M., Torres, M., Varma, R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucagon receptor agonists and antagonists affect the growth of the chick eye: a role for glucagonergic regulation of emmetropization? Vessey, K.A., Lencses, K.A., Rushforth, D.A., Hruby, V.J., Stell, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Glucagon- and secretin-related peptides differentially alter ocular growth and the development of form-deprivation myopia in chicks. Vessey, K.A., Rushforth, D.A., Stell, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of cycloplegia on measurement of the ocular components. Mutti, D.O., Zadnik, K., Egashira, S., Kish, L., Twelker, J.D., Adams, A.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Tropicamide (1%): an effective cycloplegic agent for myopic children. Manny, R.E., Hussein, M., Scheiman, M., Kurtz, D., Niemann, K., Zinzer, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. AC/A ratio, age, and refractive error in children. Mutti, D.O., Jones, L.A., Moeschberger, M.L., Zadnik, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Pathology of corneal hydrogel alloplastic implants. Peiffer, R.L., Werblin, T.P., Fryczkowski, A.W. Ophthalmology (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Magnification characteristics of fundus imaging systems. Rudnicka, A.R., Burk, R.O., Edgar, D.F., Fitzke, F.W. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of infants with significant refractive error and strabismus in a population screening program using noncycloplegic videorefraction and orthoptic examination. Anker, S., Atkinson, J., Braddick, O., Ehrlich, D., Hartley, T., Nardini, M., Wade, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Peripheral refraction and ocular shape in children. Mutti, D.O., Sholtz, R.I., Friedman, N.E., Zadnik, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Negative predictive value of a population-based preschool vision screening program. De Becker, I., MacPherson, H.J., LaRoche, G.R., Braunstein, J., Cottle, R., McIntyre, L.L., Kozousek, V. Ophthalmology (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Changes in the shape of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces caused by mydriasis and miosis: detailed analysis. Saitoh, K., Yoshida, K., Hamatsu, Y., Tazawa, Y. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Epidemiology of refractive errors and presbyopia. Weale, R.A. Survey of ophthalmology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Optical and structural development of the crystalline lens in childhood. Mutti, D.O., Zadnik, K., Fusaro, R.E., Friedman, N.E., Sholtz, R.I., Adams, A.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Ophthalmic issues in hemangiomas of infancy. Ceisler, E., Blei, F. Lymphatic research and biology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. A G1103R mutation in CRB1 is co-inherited with high hyperopia and Leber congenital amaurosis. Abouzeid, H., Li, Y., Maumenee, I.H., Dharmaraj, S., Sundin, O. Ophthalmic Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Retinoscleral control of scleral remodelling in refractive development: a role for endogenous FGF-2? Gentle, A., McBrien, N.A. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Accommodation responses and refractive error. Maddock, R.J., Millodot, M., Leat, S., Johnson, C.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Intraocular lens powers used in the triple procedure. Effect on visual acuity and refractive error. Binder, P.S. Ophthalmology (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of myopic laser in situ keratomileusis on epithelial and stromal thickness: a confocal microscopy study. Erie, J.C., Patel, S.V., McLaren, J.W., Ramirez, M., Hodge, D.O., Maguire, L.J., Bourne, W.M. Ophthalmology (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Retreatment after photorefractive keratectomy for low myopia. Rozsíval, P., Feuermannová, A. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Significant postoperative refractive errors in vivo with the Mentor Memorylens intraocular lens. Nelson, T.D., Zabriskie, N.A., Brodstein, D.E., Baker, M.R., Alder, S.C., Richards, B.W. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. How applicable are animal myopia models to human juvenile onset myopia? Zadnik, K., Mutti, D.O. Vision Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Elucidation of restrictive motility in high myopia by magnetic resonance imaging. Krzizoh, T.H., Kaufmann, H., Traupe, H. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Visual anomalies in young children exposed to cocaine. Block, S.S., Moore, B.D., Scharre, J.E. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (1997) [Pubmed]
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