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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of three Toll-like genes from mosquito Aedes aegypti.

Three Toll-related genes (AeToll1A, AeToll1B and AeToll5) were cloned and characterized from the yellow fever vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. All three genes exhibited high levels of amino acid sequence similarity with Drosophila melanogaster (Dm)Toll1 and DmTehao (Toll5). AeToll1A and AeToll1B are 1124 and 1076 amino acid residues long, respectively. Both contain a carboxyl extension downstream of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. AeToll5 is 1007 residues long and, like DmTehao, lacks the carboxyl terminal extension. Expression of these three genes was examined throughout development and after immune challenge. Both AeToll1A and AeToll5, like their Drosophila counterparts, activate transcription of drosomycin promoter in both Aedes and Drosophila cell lines. Deletion of the carboxyl extension of AeToll1A did not result in a further elevated level of the antifungal response. The intracellular signalling process appears to be species specific based on two observations. (1) DmToll is completely inactive in an Aedes cell line, suggesting a higher specificity requirement for DmToll in the intracellular signalling process. (2) Only one of three amino acid residues essential for DmToll function is required for AeToll1A function.[1]


  1. Characterization of three Toll-like genes from mosquito Aedes aegypti. Luna, C., Hoa, N.T., Zhang, J., Kanzok, S.M., Brown, S.E., Imler, J.L., Knudson, D.L., Zheng, L. Insect Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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