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Gene Review

Drs  -  Drosomycin

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BcDNA:LP03851, CG10810, CRP, Crp, Cysteine-rich peptide, ...
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Disease relevance of Drs

  • Cysteine-rich portions expressed from trx cDNAs in Escherichia coli are capable of zinc binding in vitro, suggesting a possible function for the trx product as a metal-dependent DNA-binding protein [1].
  • It contains two ORFs: the 5' ORF is related to the retroviral gag gene and encodes a protein with cysteine-rich motifs that are thought to form a "zinc-knuckle" in a nucleic-acid binding protein; the 3' ORF encodes a putative reverse transcriptase that includes the conserved domains found in reverse transcriptases from other LINEs and retroviruses [2].

Psychiatry related information on Drs

  • Evidence is now accumulating that many of the co-factors (E12, Id, MEF2 and CRP proteins) that regulate MRF activity in mammals are also present in lower vertebrates [3].

High impact information on Drs

  • wingless, a segment polarity gene required in every segment for the normal development of the Drosophila embryo, encodes a cysteine-rich protein with a signal peptide [4].
  • In particular, drosomycin expression, which is regulated by the Toll pathway during the systemic response, is regulated by imd in the respiratory tract, thus demonstrating the existence of distinct regulatory mechanisms for local and systemic induction of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila [5].
  • We have examined the requirement of Dorsal and DIF for drosomycin expression in larval fat body cells, the predominant immune-responsive tissue, using the yeast site-specific flp/FRT recombination system to generate cell clones homozygous for a deficiency uncovering both the dorsal and the dif genes [6].
  • This result suggests a functional redundancy between both Rel proteins in the control of drosomycin gene expression in the larvae of Drosophila [6].
  • This result was independently confirmed by the demonstration that a dominant-negative version of the kinase Pelle can block induction of drosomycin by the cytokine Spaetzle, but does not affect induction of the antibacterial peptide attacin by lipopolysaccharide [7].

Biological context of Drs

  • In addition, fon-RNAi larvae exhibit melanotic tumors and constitutive expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin (Drs), while fon-RNAi pupae display an aberrant pupal phenotype [8].
  • Upregulation of genes belonging to the drosomycin family in diapausing adults of Drosophila triauraria [9].
  • dUbc9 negatively regulates the Toll-NF-kappa B pathways in larval hematopoiesis and drosomycin activation in Drosophila [10].
  • In particular, the molecular characterization of the regulatory pathway controlling the antifungal peptide drosomycin has revealed the importance of Toll receptors in innate immunity [11].
  • Six genes, Drs-lC, Drs-lD, Drs-lE, Drs-lF, Drs-lG and Drs-lI, show homology to the Drs form in a multigene family on the 3rd chromosome of D. melanogaster [12].

Anatomical context of Drs


Associations of Drs with chemical compounds

  • The putative extracellular region contains four tandem repeats of a cysteine-rich motif which is similar to a cysteine pattern present in procollagen and in thrombospondin [16].
  • Structure analysis of drosomycin and Rs-AFP2, and comparisons with the other modeled antifungal structures, revealed that the two proteins shared a hydrophobic cluster located at the protein surface in which a lysine residue is embedded [17].

Regulatory relationships of Drs


Other interactions of Drs

  • However, the similarities between drosomycin-like in D. triauraria and the members of the drosomycin family in D. melanogaster are quite lower than those between other homologous genes in these species [9].
  • Expression of the gene encoding the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila adults is controlled by the Toll signaling pathway [6].
  • Interestingly, DaPKC functions downstream of the nuclear translocation of Dorsal or Dif, controlling the transcriptional activity of the Drosomycin promoter [19].
  • The Toll-9 gene is expressed in adult and larval stages prior to microbial challenge, and the expression correlates with the high constitutive level of drosomycin mRNA in the animals [20].
  • We also report that, in contrast to the antibacterial peptides, the antifungal peptide drosomycin remains inducible in a homozygous imd mutant background [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Drs


  1. The trithorax gene, a trans-acting regulator of the bithorax complex in Drosophila, encodes a protein with zinc-binding domains. Mazo, A.M., Huang, D.H., Mozer, B.A., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. The X element, a novel LINE transposable element from Drosophila melanogaster. Tudor, M., Davis, A.J., Feldman, M., Grammatikaki, M., O'Hare, K. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation and functions of myogenic regulatory factors in lower vertebrates. Rescan, P.Y. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution of the wingless gene product in Drosophila embryos: a protein involved in cell-cell communication. van den Heuvel, M., Nusse, R., Johnston, P., Lawrence, P.A. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Tissue-specific inducible expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila surface epithelia. Tzou, P., Ohresser, S., Ferrandon, D., Capovilla, M., Reichhart, J.M., Lemaitre, B., Hoffmann, J.A., Imler, J.L. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A mosaic analysis in Drosophila fat body cells of the control of antimicrobial peptide genes by the Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF. Manfruelli, P., Reichhart, J.M., Steward, R., Hoffmann, J.A., Lemaitre, B. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Toll-related receptors and the control of antimicrobial peptide expression in Drosophila. Tauszig, S., Jouanguy, E., Hoffmann, J.A., Imler, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The Toll immune-regulated Drosophila protein Fondue is involved in hemolymph clotting and puparium formation. Scherfer, C., Qazi, M.R., Takahashi, K., Ueda, R., Dushay, M.S., Theopold, U., Lemaitre, B. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Upregulation of genes belonging to the drosomycin family in diapausing adults of Drosophila triauraria. Daibo, S., Kimura, M.T., Goto, S.G. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. dUbc9 negatively regulates the Toll-NF-kappa B pathways in larval hematopoiesis and drosomycin activation in Drosophila. Chiu, H., Ring, B.C., Sorrentino, R.P., Kalamarz, M., Garza, D., Govind, S. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. LPS-induced immune response in Drosophila. Imler, J.L., Tauszig, S., Jouanguy, E., Forestier, C., Hoffmann, J.A. J. Endotoxin Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional divergence of six isoforms of antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila melanogaster. Yang, W.Y., Wen, S.Y., Huang, Y.D., Ye, M.Q., Deng, X.J., Han, D., Xia, Q.Y., Cao, Y. Gene (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Insect immunity. Isolation from the lepidopteran Heliothis virescens of a novel insect defensin with potent antifungal activity. Lamberty, M., Ades, S., Uttenweiler-Joseph, S., Brookhart, G., Bushey, D., Hoffmann, J.A., Bulet, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of three Toll-like genes from mosquito Aedes aegypti. Luna, C., Hoa, N.T., Zhang, J., Kanzok, S.M., Brown, S.E., Imler, J.L., Knudson, D.L., Zheng, L. Insect Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The cysteine string secretory vesicle protein activates Hsc70 ATPase. Braun, J.E., Wilbanks, S.M., Scheller, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The Drosophila melanogaster stranded at second (sas) gene encodes a putative epidermal cell surface receptor required for larval development. Schonbaum, C.P., Organ, E.L., Qu, S., Cavener, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. The active site of drosomycin, a small insect antifungal protein, delineated by comparison with the modeled structure of Rs-AFP2, a plant antifungal protein. Landon, C., Pajon, A., Vovelle, F., Sodano, P. J. Pept. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Tehao functions in the Toll pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: possible roles in development and innate immunity. Luo, C., Shen, B., Manley, J.L., Zheng, L. Insect Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The Drosophila atypical protein kinase C-ref(2)p complex constitutes a conserved module for signaling in the toll pathway. Avila, A., Silverman, N., Diaz-Meco, M.T., Moscat, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. Ooi, J.Y., Yagi, Y., Hu, X., Ip, Y.T. EMBO Rep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense. Lemaitre, B., Kromer-Metzger, E., Michaut, L., Nicolas, E., Meister, M., Georgel, P., Reichhart, J.M., Hoffmann, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Repression of the wing vein development in Drosophila by the nuclear matrix protein plexus. Matakatsu, H., Tadokoro, R., Gamo, S., Hayashi, S. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Drosophila male-specific lethal-2 protein: structure/function analysis and dependence on MSL-1 for chromosome association. Lyman, L.M., Copps, K., Rastelli, L., Kelley, R.L., Kuroda, M.I. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional expression of a Drosophila antifungal peptide in Escherichia coli. Yuan, Y., Gao, B., Zhu, S. Protein Expr. Purif. (2007) [Pubmed]
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