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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction of protection against the necrotrophic pathogens Phytophthora citrophthora and Alternaria solani in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. by a novel synthetic glycoside combined with amines.

1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-6-ethyladipate-beta- D-glucopyranose (TOGE), a glycoside derivative of adipic acid monoethyl ester and 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-beta- D-glucopyranose, was synthesized and the resistance-inducing activity shown by TOGE-1 (TOGE plus furfurylamine) and TOGE-2 (TOGE plus 1,3-diaminepropane) was assayed. TOGE-1 and TOGE-2 protected tomato plants against two different fungal pathogens Phytophthora citrophthora and Alternaria solani. Foliar treatments at very low concentrations (2.5 mg l(-1) TOGE, 0.5 mg l(-1) amine) clearly reduced the disease incidence for both pathogens. TOGE-2 application was the most effective on intact plants as well as on detached leaves, reducing fungal growth by more than 46% with respect to control plants. On the other hand TOGE-1 treatment reduced fungal advance by 21%. These results demonstrate a high protective effect against fungal infections for both chemicals. A possible direct antimicrobial effect was discounted due to the weak activity observed in vitro against these pathogens at the low concentrations used in plants. TOGE-2 treatment clearly activates resistance against both pathogens and improves the protective effect previously shown by FGA mixture (adipic acid monoethyl ester, 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-beta- D-glucopyranose and furfurylamine) [V. Flors et al. (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:2569-2575]. The obtained results indicate that TOGE-1 and TOGE-2 act as resistance inducers. Although their mode of action is still unknown, pre-challenge studies have demonstrated the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway and antioxidant activities. Both chemicals have demonstrated a beneficial effect on plant development, increasing chlorophyll and protein contents, photosynthetic rate and water-use efficiency. The improvement of plant growth and development produced by these treatments suggests crop tolerance to these chemicals, although effective formulations that are safe to humans must be developed before this technology can be used commercially.[1]


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