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Disease relevance of Alternaria


High impact information on Alternaria


Chemical compound and disease context of Alternaria


Biological context of Alternaria


Anatomical context of Alternaria


Associations of Alternaria with chemical compounds

  • Destruxin B is the major phytotoxin produced by the blackspot-causing fungus, Alternaria brassicae (Berkley) Saccardo [24].
  • Changes in the expression patterns of 2,375 selected genes were examined simultaneously by cDNA microarray analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana after inoculation with an incompatible fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola or treatment with the defense-related signaling molecules salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), or ethylene [25].
  • A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1 [26].
  • Conventional breeding of safflower for resistance to the Alternaria blight disease has failed, and in situ detoxification of brefeldin A is a novel approach for the protection of field-grown safflower plants from the blight disease [27].
  • Spore germination increases allergen release from Alternaria [28].

Gene context of Alternaria

  • RESULTS: PBMCs from approximately 90% of the patients with CRS, but not those from normal individuals, produced both IL-5 and IL-13 when exposed to Alternaria [29].
  • Furthermore, PBMCs from patients with CRS produced significantly more IFN-gamma than PBMCs from normal individuals in response to Alternaria (median, 553 pg/mL vs 98 pg/mL; P < .01) [29].
  • Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans [30].
  • The Asc locus for resistance to Alternaria stem canker in tomato does not encode the enzyme aspartate carbamoyltransferase [18].
  • The HDAC activities of the fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Diheterospora chlamydosporia, which also make HDAC inhibitors, were resistant [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Alternaria


  1. Composition of tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer. I. Selenium, polonium-210, Alternaria, tar, and nicotine. Bogden, J.D., Kemp, F.W., Buse, M., Thind, I.S., Louria, D.B., Forgacs, J., Llanos, G., Moncoya Terrones, I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Chlorophyllase 1, a damage control enzyme, affects the balance between defense pathways in plants. Kariola, T., Brader, G., Li, J., Palva, E.T. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit. Harwig, J., Scott, P.M., Stoltz, D.R., Blanchfield, B.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Toxicity of the Alternaria metabolites alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and tenuazonic acid in the chicken embryo assay. Griffin, G.F., Chu, F.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. IgE and IgG antibody responses to recombinant Alt a 1 as a marker of sensitization to Alternaria in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Vailes, L.D., Perzanowski, M.S., Wheatley, L.M., Platts-Mills, T.A., Chapman, M.D. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Response of long-running Alternaria alternata infection to fluconazole. Diaz, M., Puente, R., Treviño, M.A. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 is involved in jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling of pathogen response in Arabidopsis. Zhou, C., Zhang, L., Duan, J., Miki, B., Wu, K. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis PAD3, a gene required for camalexin biosynthesis, encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. Zhou, N., Tootle, T.L., Glazebrook, J. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Concomitant activation of jasmonate and ethylene response pathways is required for induction of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis. Penninckx, I.A., Thomma, B.P., Buchala, A., Métraux, J.P., Broekaert, W.F. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure of spinach chloroplast F1-ATPase complexed with the phytopathogenic inhibitor tentoxin. Groth, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro allergen-induced degranulation of pulmonary mast cells from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Hare, J.E., Viel, L., Conlon, P.D., Marshall, J.S. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Examination of Alternaria alternata mutagenicity and effects of nitrosylation using the Ames Salmonella test. Schrader, T.J., Cherry, W., Soper, K., Langlois, I., Vijay, H.M. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Ungual phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata. Gianni, C., Cerri, A., Crosti, C. Mycoses (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani to chick embryos. Wu, M.T., Salunkhe, D.K. Experientia (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Fumonisins and Alternaria alternata lycopersici toxins: sphinganine analog mycotoxins induce apoptosis in monkey kidney cells. Wang, W., Jones, C., Ciacci-Zanella, J., Holt, T., Gilchrist, D.G., Dickman, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of the glucocorticosteroid budesonide and a novel phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor CDP840 on antigen-induced airway responses in neonatally immunised rabbits. Gozzard, N., el-Hashim, A., Herd, C.M., Blake, S.M., Holbrook, M., Hughes, B., Higgs, G.A., Page, C.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. A method for the long-term exposure of rabbits to environmental pollutant gases. Douglas, G.J., Price, J.F., Page, C.P. Eur. Respir. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. The Asc locus for resistance to Alternaria stem canker in tomato does not encode the enzyme aspartate carbamoyltransferase. Overduin, B., Hogenhout, S.A., van der Biezen, E.A., Haring, M.A., Nijkamp, H.J., Hille, J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Leukotriene C4 release in upper respiratory mucosa during natural exposure to ragweed in ragweed-sensitive children. Volovitz, B., Osur, S.L., Bernstein, J.M., Ogra, P.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of theophylline and rolipram on antigen-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits. Gozzard, N., Herd, C.M., Blake, S.M., Holbrook, M., Hughes, B., Higgs, G.A., Page, C.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Human leukocyte histamine release assays with whole ragweed and Alternaria antigens using Technicon autoanalyzer II. Reinders, E.J., Chiu, H.C., Yoo, T.J. Allergy (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Antigen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the rabbit is not dependent on M(2)-receptor dysfunction. Patel, H.J., Douglas, G.J., Herd, C.M., Spina, D., Giembycz, M.A., Barnes, P.J., Belvisi, M.G., Page, C.P. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies on Alternaria allergens. III. Effect of Alternaria tenuis on the humoral response to three T cell-dependent antigens in rats. Vijay, H.M., Huang, H., Young, N.M., Bernstein, I.L. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. In planta sequential hydroxylation and glycosylation of a fungal phytotoxin: Avoiding cell death and overcoming the fungal invader. Pedras, M.S., Zaharia, I.L., Gai, Y., Zhou, Y., Ward, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Coordinated plant defense responses in Arabidopsis revealed by microarray analysis. Schenk, P.M., Kazan, K., Wilson, I., Anderson, J.P., Richmond, T., Somerville, S.C., Manners, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1. Brandwagt, B.F., Mesbah, L.A., Takken, F.L., Laurent, P.L., Kneppers, T.J., Hille, J., Nijkamp, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular characterization and cloning of an esterase which inactivates the macrolide toxin brefeldin A. Kneusel, R.E., Schiltz, E., Matern, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Spore germination increases allergen release from Alternaria. Mitakakis, T.Z., Barnes, C., Tovey, E.R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Chronic rhinosinusitis: an enhanced immune response to ubiquitous airborne fungi. Shin, S.H., Ponikau, J.U., Sherris, D.A., Congdon, D., Frigas, E., Homburger, H.A., Swanson, M.C., Gleich, G.J., Kita, H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Rewiring mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by positive feedback confers potato blight resistance. Yamamizo, C., Kuchimura, K., Kobayashi, A., Katou, S., Kawakita, K., Jones, J.D., Doke, N., Yoshioka, H. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of inhibitor-resistant histone deacetylase activity in plant-pathogenic fungi. Baidyaroy, D., Brosch, G., Graessle, S., Trojer, P., Walton, J.D. Eukaryotic Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Antigens of alternaria. I. Isolation and partial characterization of a basic peptide allergen. Budd, T.W., Kuo, C.Y., Yoo, T.J., McKenna, W.R., Cazin, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular cloning of a major Alternaria alternata allergen, rAlt a 2. Bush, R.K., Sanchez, H., Geisler, D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Comparison of different extraction methods of Alternaria allergens. Paris, S., Fitting, C., Ramirez, E., Latgé, J.P., David, B. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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