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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of d-limonene on three stored-product beetles.

d-Limonene was investigated for contact and fumigant toxicity, ovicidal effects, oviposition-deterrent, development inhibition, and feeding-deterrent activities against three stored-product beetles (Coleoptera): lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Contact and fumigant toxicity decreased as larvae aged. Contact toxicity was similar for adults of the three species tested, but R. dominica was most susceptible to fumigant activity. T. castaneum oviposition decreased as concentration of d-limonene increased and d-limonene reduced oviposition up to 92.3% at the concentration of 2.14 mg/cm2. Hatching of d-limonene-treated eggs of T. castaneum was reduced by 94.5% with no subsequent larval and adult survival at 2.14 mg/cm2 concentration. A flour disc bioassay indicated 87.7 to 96.8% feeding-deterrency by d-limonene toward all three insect species tested at the highest concentration of 60.0 mg/g food. These results suggest that d-limonene can be effectively used to suppress populations of stored-product beetles.[1]


  1. Effect of d-limonene on three stored-product beetles. Tripathi, A.K., Prajapati, V., Khanuja, S.P., Kumar, S. J. Econ. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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