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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tribolium

  • Seven biological systems in resting state (Bacillus subtilis spores, Colpoda cucullus cysts, Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, and eggs of Artemia salina, Tribolium castaneum and of Carausius morosus) were accommodated in the two Biostacks [1].
  • On the other hand, the aqueous extract of soosan bulbs synergized the toxicity of actellic and permethrin in Tribolium castaneum which reduced their LC50 values from 80 to 46 ppm and from 1000 to 550 ppm, respectively [2].

High impact information on Tribolium


Biological context of Tribolium


Anatomical context of Tribolium

  • We have analysed the role of Krüppel in the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum where the pair-rule stripes corresponding to the 10 abdominal segments arise during growth stages subsequent to the blastoderm [10].
  • One differing aspect of hb expression in Tribolium concerns a structure that is not present in Drosophila, namely the serosa [11].
  • In wild-type embryos, her1 is expressed in a dynamic, repeating pattern, remarkably similar to that of its Drosophila and Tribolium counterparts, suggesting that a pair-rule mechanism also functions in the segmentation of the vertebrate paraxial mesoderm [12].

Associations of Tribolium with chemical compounds

  • Malathion-specific resistance in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is widespread and stable in natural populations even in the absence of pesticide exposure [13].
  • Flour infested with Tribolium castaneum, biscuits made of this flour, and 1,4-benzoquinone induce neoplastic lesions in Swiss albino mice [14].
  • We report the existence of partial reproductive isolation between two natural populations of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, collected in Kaduna, Nigeria and Zagreb, Croatia [15].
  • 4,8-Dimethyldecanal, the aggregation pheromone of Tribolium castaneum, is biosynthesized through the fatty acid pathway [16].
  • Allelochemical effects of eudesmane and eremophilane sesquiterpenes on Tribolium castaneum larvae [17].

Gene context of Tribolium

  • We find that in Tribolium, Abd-A, but not Ubx, represses early expression of Dll in the embryonic abdomen [7].
  • In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we have isolated loss-of-function mutations of the Deformed ortholog [6].
  • To investigate the evolution of neural pattern formation, we identified and determined the expression patterns of Tribolium vnd, ind, and msh, and found that they are expressed in the medial, intermediate, and lateral columns of the developing CNS, respectively, in patterns similar, but not identical, to their Drosophila orthologs [18].
  • The pattern of Egfr activity suggests that the genetic regulatory mechanisms that initiate Tc-vnd expression are similar in Drosophila and Tribolium, whereas those that initiate Tc-ind have diverged [18].
  • Unlike the ANTC, this region of the Tribolium HOMC contains no additional genes [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tribolium

  • Here we report the results of a study using high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify two important chemical secretions of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum, methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone (MBQ) and ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (EBQ) [19].
  • Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to assess the effect of the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations Insecto, SilicoSec, and PyriSec, on stored oat, rye, and triticale, against adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val [20].


  1. CD4+ lymphocyte responses to pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in naïve and vaccinated BALB/c mice. Mason, C.M., Dobard, E., Shellito, J., Nelson, S. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Insecticidal, acaricidal and synergistic effects of soosan, Pancratium maritimum extracts and constituents. Abbassy, M.A., el-Gougary, O.A., el-Hamady, S., Sholo, M.A. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The genes orthodenticle and hunchback substitute for bicoid in the beetle Tribolium. Schröder, R. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Conservation of wingless patterning functions in the short-germ embryos of Tribolium castaneum. Nagy, L.M., Carroll, S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of an orthologue of the Drosophila pair-rule gene hairy in segment formation of the short germ-band embryo of Tribolium (Coleoptera). Sommer, R.J., Tautz, D. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Implications of the Tribolium Deformed mutant phenotype for the evolution of Hox gene function. Brown, S., DeCamillis, M., Gonzalez-Charneco, K., Denell, M., Beeman, R., Nie, W., Denell, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Distinct roles of the homeotic genes Ubx and abd-A in beetle embryonic abdominal appendage development. Lewis, D.L., DeCamillis, M., Bennett, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex. Stuart, J.J., Brown, S.J., Beeman, R.W., Denell, R.E. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequence of the Tribolium castaneum homeotic complex: the region corresponding to the Drosophila melanogaster antennapedia complex. Brown, S.J., Fellers, J.P., Shippy, T.D., Richardson, E.A., Maxwell, M., Stuart, J.J., Denell, R.E. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Breakdown of abdominal patterning in the Tribolium Kruppel mutant jaws. Cerny, A.C., Bucher, G., Schröder, R., Klingler, M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Conserved and divergent expression aspects of the Drosophila segmentation gene hunchback in the short germ band embryo of the flour beetle Tribolium. Wolff, C., Sommer, R., Schröder, R., Glaser, G., Tautz, D. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Zebrafish segmentation and pair-rule patterning. van Eeden, F.J., Holley, S.A., Haffter, P., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Dev. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Insecticide resistance enhances male reproductive success in a beetle. Arnaud, L., Haubruge, E. Evolution (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Flour infested with Tribolium castaneum, biscuits made of this flour, and 1,4-benzoquinone induce neoplastic lesions in Swiss albino mice. el-Mofty, M.M., Khudoley, V.V., Sakr, S.A., Fathala, N.G. Nutrition and cancer. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Incipient speciation in the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum: premating isolation between natural populations. Wade, M.J., Chang, N.W., McNaughton, M. Heredity (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. 4,8-Dimethyldecanal, the aggregation pheromone of Tribolium castaneum, is biosynthesized through the fatty acid pathway. Kim, J., Matsuyama, S., Suzuki, T. J. Chem. Ecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Allelochemical effects of eudesmane and eremophilane sesquiterpenes on Tribolium castaneum larvae. García, M., Sosa, M.E., Donadel, O.J., Giordano, O.S., Tonn, C.E. J. Chem. Ecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. The Tribolium columnar genes reveal conservation and plasticity in neural precursor patterning along the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis. Wheeler, S.R., Carrico, M.L., Wilson, B.A., Skeath, J.B. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Variation in the production and distribution of substituted benzoquinone compounds among genetic strains of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum. Yezerski, A., Gilmor, T.P., Stevens, L. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on oat, rye, and triticale. Athanassiou, C.G., Kavallieratos, N.G., Andris, N.S. J. Econ. Entomol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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