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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

hMusTRD1alpha1 represses MEF2 activation of the troponin I slow enhancer.

The novel transcription factor hMusTRD1alpha1 (human muscle TFII-I repeat domain-containing protein 1alpha1; previously named MusTRD1; O'Mahoney, J. V., Guven, K. L., Lin, J., Joya, J. E., Robinson, C. S., Wade, R. P., and Hardeman, E. C. (1998) Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 6641-6652) was identified in a yeast one-hybrid screen as a protein that binds within an upstream enhancer-containing region of the skeletal muscle-specific gene, TNNI1 (human troponin I slow; hTnIslow). It has been proposed that hMusTRD1alpha1 may play an important role in fiber-specific muscle gene expression by virtue of its ability to bind to an Inr-like element (nucleotides -977 to -960) within the hTnIslow upstream enhancer-containing region that is necessary for slow fiber-specific expression. In this study we demonstrate that both MEF2C, a known regulator of slow fiber-specific genes, and hMusTRD1alpha1 regulate hTnIslow through the Inr-like element. Co-transfection assays in C2C12 cells and Cos-7 cells demonstrate that hMusTRD1alpha1 represses hTnIslow transcription and prevents MEF2C-mediated activation of hTnIslow transcription. Gel shift analysis shows that hMusTRD1alpha1 can abrogate MEF2C binding to its cognate site in the hTnIslow enhancer. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrate that hMusTRD1alpha1 can interact with both MEF2C and the nuclear receptor co-repressor. The data support the role of hMusTRD1alpha1 as a repressor of slow fiber-specific transcription through mechanisms involving direct interactions with MEF2C and the nuclear receptor co-repressor.[1]


  1. hMusTRD1alpha1 represses MEF2 activation of the troponin I slow enhancer. Polly, P., Haddadi, L.M., Issa, L.L., Subramaniam, N., Palmer, S.J., Tay, E.S., Hardeman, E.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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