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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhalational induction of anaesthesia with 8% sevoflurane in children: conditions for endotracheal intubation and side-effects.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the conditions for endotracheal intubation or insertion of a laryngeal mask airway following an inhalational induction using 8% sevoflurane and nitrous oxide without the use of muscle relaxants or opioids. METHODS: There were two groups: 30 children had endotracheal intubation and 30 children had a laryngeal mask airway inserted. Induction of anaesthesia was accomplished using an inspiratory concentration of sevoflurane 8% in a nitrous oxide and oxygen mixture. After an end-expiratory concentration of sevoflurane of at least 4% had been reached, when the pupils were miotic and centred, the trachea was intubated or a laryngeal mask inserted. The time to loss of consciousness and successful airway management was recorded. Jaw relaxation, movements, visibility, and position of the vocal cords and vital parameters were monitored. RESULTS: Jaw relaxation was complete in all children. The vocal cords were completely visible in all patients of the tracheal intubation group, whereas vocal cord relaxation was incomplete in five children. Nevertheless, all children had an atraumatic intubation or insertion of the laryngeal mask without the use of a muscle relaxant. Vital signs were stable in both groups. There were no cases of restlessness and/or postoperative shivering. Four patients in the endotracheal group (13.3%) were nauseous and three (10%) vomited, while two children (6.6%) in the laryngeal mask group experienced nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: Induction with sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen leads to fast loss of consciousness and provides ideal conditions for managing the airway without supplemental opioids or muscle relaxants. Furthermore, sevoflurane using this technique was very well tolerated, indicated by high haemodynamic stability and a reduced rate of postoperative restlessness, shivering, nausea and vomiting.[1]


  1. Inhalational induction of anaesthesia with 8% sevoflurane in children: conditions for endotracheal intubation and side-effects. Wappler, F., Frings, D.P., Scholz, J., Mann, V., Koch, C., Schulte am Esch, J. European journal of anaesthesiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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