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MeSH Review

Laryngeal Masks

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Disease relevance of Laryngeal Masks


High impact information on Laryngeal Masks

  • After a short training programme 11 naval medical trainees inserted a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and a tracheal tube (ETT) in random order in a total of 110 anaesthetised patients [6].
  • 2. The breathing pattern and firing timing of TA muscle activation were determined in ten MSA patients, anaesthetized with propofol and breathing through the laryngeal mask airway, while the behaviour of the laryngeal aperture was being observed endoscopically [7].
  • METHODS: Seventy children, aged 2-6 yr, scheduled to undergo elective surgery were randomly allocated to undergo propofol or sevoflurane anesthesia while breathing spontaneously through a laryngeal mask airway [8].
  • The tested hypothesis was that patients breathing equivalent concentrations of desflurane or sevoflurane through a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) would have similar responses [9].
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, the manufacturer of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA; Laryngeal Mask Company, Ltd., Northfield End, Henley on Thames, Oxon, United Kingdom) recommends using as large a mask size as possible [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Laryngeal Masks


Biological context of Laryngeal Masks


Anatomical context of Laryngeal Masks

  • METHODS: The airway mucosa of the larynx, tracheal carina, and bronchi were stimulated by injection of distilled water (0.5 ml) at two different depths of sevoflurane anesthesia (1.2 and 1.8 MAC) in 11 female subjects breathing spontaneously through the laryngeal mask airway [20].
  • Positioning of the epiglottis when the Brain laryngeal mask airway is in place was studied in 20 adult patients, using a new technique of insertion [21].
  • Brush biopsies of nasal mucosa were taken pre- and post-anaesthesia with isoflurane, given via a laryngeal mask, from patients undergoing nasal surgery [22].
  • The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) was developed in the 1980s, but has only recently begun to be used in Emergency Medicine. The LMA affords effective assisted ventilation without requiring endotracheal intubation or visualization of the glottis [23].

Associations of Laryngeal Masks with chemical compounds

  • Influence of nitrous oxide on minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask insertion in children [24].
  • After 10 min of isoflurane, the resistance decreased to 8.6+/-3.6 cm water x 1(-1) x s(-1) in the endotracheal tube group but remained unchanged at 9.1+/-3.3 cm water x 1(-1) x s(-1) in the laryngeal mask airway group [25].
  • In the absence of data on the anatomic localization of the cuff of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in children, radiologic images were obtained from 50 infants and children (aged 1 month to 15 yr) undergoing diagnostic radiologic procedures during halothane and N2O:O2 anesthesia [26].
  • Desflurane enhances reactivity during the use of the laryngeal mask airway [9].
  • Breath interval was recorded before and after a single dose of fentanyl 0.75 microgram kg-1 i.v. Breath interval was measured between the start of successive inspirations, identified by a decrease in carbon dioxide concentration, sampled at the laryngeal mask connection [27].

Gene context of Laryngeal Masks

  • These alternatives include the laryngeal mask airway (LMA; LMA North America, San Diego, CA), cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA; Mallinckrodt, St. Louis, MO), and Combitube (Kendall-Sheridan, Mansfield, MA), that have been designed to act as bridges to establish an airway [28].
  • BACKGROUND: The intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA; Fastrach; Laryngeal Mask Company, Henley-on-Thames, UK) may provide an alternative technique to fiberoptic intubation (FIB) to facilitate the management of the anticipated difficult airway [29].
  • We compared the effects of the Brain laryngeal mask airway with a tracheal tube on intra-ocular pressure [30].
  • Fiberoptic tracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask airway in a child with Treacher Collins syndrome [5].
  • Gastroesophageal reflux with the laryngeal mask [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Laryngeal Masks

  • Dose of propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children: effect of premedication with midazolam [32].
  • In 12 patients to whom a non-depolarising neuromuscular relaxant had been given and in whom placement of the laryngeal mask had failed unexpectedly, the view of the larynx at laryngoscopy and the ease of tracheal intubation were examined [33].
  • Forty-eight patients (ASA physical status I-III) were randomized to receive either propofol-nitrous oxide general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway with anesthetic depth titrated to a bispectral index level of 40-60, 15-20 mL of 3% 2-chloroprocaine epidural, or 75 mg of subarachnoid procaine with 20 microg fentanyl [34].
  • METHODS: We studied 14 patients undergoing laparoscopy for minor gynaecological procedures, anaesthetized with isoflurane in nitrous oxide, and breathing spontaneously through a laryngeal mask airway [35].
  • Twelve elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty received lumbar epidural anaesthesia and propofol infusion at 5 following a 1.5-2.0 bolus dose with preservation of spontaneous respiration via a laryngeal mask airway [36].


  1. Salbutamol via the laryngeal mask airway for relief of bronchospasm. Spain, B.T., Riley, R.H. Anaesthesia. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Does benzydamine hydrochloride applied preemptively reduce sore throat due to laryngeal mask airway? Kati, I., Tekin, M., Silay, E., Huseyinoglu, U.A., Yildiz, H. Anesth. Analg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of spinal vs general anesthesia via laryngeal mask airway in inguinal hernia repair. Burney, R.E., Prabhu, M.A., Greenfield, M.L., Shanks, A., O'Reilly, M. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The use of mini-dose suxamethonium to facilitate the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway. Ho, K.M., Chui, P.T. Anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Fiberoptic tracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask airway in a child with Treacher Collins syndrome. Muraika, L., Heyman, J.S., Shevchenko, Y. Anesth. Analg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Laryngeal mask airway and tracheal tube insertion by unskilled personnel. Davies, P.R., Tighe, S.Q., Greenslade, G.L., Evans, G.H. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Pathogenesis of laryngeal narrowing in patients with multiple system atrophy. Isono, S., Shiba, K., Yamaguchi, M., Tanaka, A., Hattori, T., Konno, A., Nishino, T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Respiratory reflex responses of the larynx differ between sevoflurane and propofol in pediatric patients. Oberer, C., von Ungern-Sternberg, B.S., Frei, F.J., Erb, T.O. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Desflurane enhances reactivity during the use of the laryngeal mask airway. Arain, S.R., Shankar, H., Ebert, T.J. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharyngolaryngeal morbidity with the laryngeal mask airway in spontaneously breathing patients: does size matter? Grady, D.M., McHardy, F., Wong, J., Jin, F., Tong, D., Chung, F. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of subtenon anesthesia combined with general anesthesia on perioperative analgesic requirements in pediatric strabismus surgery. Steib, A., Karcenty, A., Calache, E., Franckhauser, J., Dupeyron, J.P., Speeg-Schatz, C. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Resuscitation of the newly born infant: an advisory statement from the Pediatric Working Group of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Kattwinkel, J., Niermeyer, S., Nadkarni, V., Tibballs, J., Phillips, B., Zideman, D., Van Reempts, P., Osmond, M. Resuscitation. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Laryngeal papillomatosis with airway obstruction in an infant. Mikkelsen, P.G. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. New halogenated agents: should I change my practice? Feiss, P. Minerva anestesiologica. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Monitoring of immobility to noxious stimulation during sevoflurane anesthesia using the spinal H-reflex. Rehberg, B., Grünewald, M., Baars, J., Fuegener, K., Urban, B.W., Kox, W.J. Anesthesiology (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Topical lignocaine and thiopentone for the insertion of a laryngeal mask airway; a comparison with propofol. Seavell, C.R., Cook, T.M., Cox, C.M. Anaesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect on intraocular pressure of tracheal intubation or laryngeal mask insertion during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children without the use of muscle relaxants. Duman, A., Ogün, C.O., Okesli, S. Paediatric anaesthesia. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. A prospective observational study of the use of the Proseal laryngeal mask airway for postpartum tubal ligation. Evans, N.R., Skowno, J.J., Bennett, P.J., James, M.F., Dyer, R.A. International journal of obstetric anesthesia. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Pediatric plastic surgery in a day hospital: use of propofol and a laryngeal mask. D'Andrea, F., Corcione, A., Ferraro, G., Brongo, S. Annals of plastic surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Differences in respiratory reflex responses from the larynx, trachea, and bronchi in anesthetized female subjects. Nishino, T., Kochi, T., Ishii, M. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Correct positioning of the epiglottis for application of the Brain laryngeal mask airway. Fukutome, T. Anaesthesia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. What effect does isoflurane have upon ciliary beat pattern: an in vivo study. Robertson, A., Stannard, W., Passant, C., O'Callaghan, C., Banerjee, A. Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The laryngeal mask airway: a comprehensive review for the Emergency Physician. Pollack, C.V. The Journal of emergency medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Influence of nitrous oxide on minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask insertion in children. Kihara, S., Yaguchi, Y., Inomata, S., Watanabe, S., Brimacombe, J.R., Taguchi, N., Komatsuzaki, T. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Endotracheal intubation, but not laryngeal mask airway insertion, produces reversible bronchoconstriction. Kim, E.S., Bishop, M.J. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Radiologic localization of the laryngeal mask airway in children. Goudsouzian, N.G., Denman, W., Cleveland, R., Shorten, G. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Breath interval as a measure of dynamic opioid effect. Smart, J.A., Pallett, E.J., Duthie, D.J. British journal of anaesthesia. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Bridges to establish an emergency airway and alternate intubating techniques. Foley, L.J., Ochroch, E.A. Critical care clinics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of the intubating laryngeal mask airway with the fiberoptic intubation in anticipated difficult airway management. Langeron, O., Semjen, F., Bourgain, J.L., Marsac, A., Cros, A.M. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Intra-ocular pressure changes following laryngeal mask airway insertion: a comparative study. Whitford, A.M., Hone, S.W., O'Hare, B., Magner, J., Eustace, P. Anaesthesia. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Gastroesophageal reflux with the laryngeal mask. Brimacombe, J.R. Anesth. Analg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Dose of propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children: effect of premedication with midazolam. Martlew, R.A., Meakin, G., Wadsworth, R., Sharples, A., Baker, R.D. British journal of anaesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The view of the glottis at laryngoscopy after unexpectedly difficult placement of the laryngeal mask. Asai, T. Anaesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. A comparison of spinal, epidural, and general anesthesia for outpatient knee arthroscopy. Mulroy, M.F., Larkin, K.L., Hodgson, P.S., Helman, J.D., Pollock, J.E., Liu, S.S. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Abdominal pressure during laparoscopy: effects of fentanyl. Drummond, G.B., Duncan, M.K. British journal of anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Circulatory, respiratory and metabolic changes after thigh tourniquet release in combined epidural-propofol anaesthesia with preservation of spontaneous respiration. Iwama, H., Kaneko, T., Ohmizo, H., Furuta, S., Ohmori, S., Watanabe, K. Anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
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