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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Vocal Cords

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Disease relevance of Vocal Cords


Psychiatry related information on Vocal Cords


High impact information on Vocal Cords

  • By means of a special catheter, a solution of N-nitroso-N-methylurea was applied twice a week to about a 6-mm length of the trachea 10- to 16-mm distal from teh vocal cords [7].
  • METHODS: The movements of laryngeal and vocal cord structures during swallowing were determined in 11 normal volunteers by single slice and axially reformatted multislice coronal echoplanar images [8].
  • Thus a diagnosis of Gerhardt's syndrome, usually ascribed to paralysis of vocal-cord abductor muscles, was made in 3 patients who had no other signs or symptoms of dystonia, and in 3 patients who had multifocal dystonia [9].
  • Clinical, electrophysiological and morphological findings of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy with vocal cord palsy and mutations in the GDAP1 gene [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the recurrent laryngeal nerve, even if infiltrated by differentiated thyroid cancer, is worthwhile to preserve for maintenance of postoperative vocal cord function without affecting the incidence of local recurrence or prognosis [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vocal Cords


Biological context of Vocal Cords

  • We have studied in dogs the neuromuscular blocking effects of vecuronium on the cricothyroid (CT) (a tensor muscle of the vocal folds) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) (sole abductor muscle of the vocal folds) muscles of the larynx and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle [17].
  • Following induction with fentanyl and thiopentone and muscle relaxation with vecuronium the vocal cords were visualised for 10 s with either the Macintosh or McCoy blade, chosen at random [18].
  • We recorded tidal volume, airflow, and electromyograms (EMG) of the laryngeal abductor [posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA)], which abducts the vocal cords, and diaphragm during behaviorally determined quiet sleep in room air and during steady-state inhalation of 2% CO2 in air [19].
  • This axonal form of Charot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with a new GDAP1 mutation is recessively inherited and is characterized by a severe phenotype, since patients become wheelchair bound in the third decade, and present vocal cord and diaphram paralysis, which may be missed as they had no respiratory symptoms until the third decade [20].
  • There are no marked age-related alterations in vocal fold levels of TIMP mRNAs, and the tissue variation in the gene expression of the aforementioned molecules is minute [21].

Anatomical context of Vocal Cords


Associations of Vocal Cords with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: Severely affected patients had mild-to-moderate restriction and individual patients had bilateral diaphragmatic or vocal cord palsy, abnormal respiratory rhythm, prolonged inspiratory time, or an abnormal respiratory response to CO2 [27].
  • The differences between neuromuscular blockade of the adductor muscles of the vocal cords and the adductor pollicis were examined in 20 adult women anesthetized with fentanyl and propofol [28].
  • Changes in expression of extracellular matrix genes, fibrogenic factors, and actin cytoskeletal organization in retinol treated and untreated vocal fold stellate cells [29].
  • A dose greater than 0.14 mivacurium is necessary to ensure complete relaxation at the vocal cords [30].
  • Adding atracurium to a propofol-fentanyl induction regimen significantly improved the quality of tracheal intubation and decreased postoperative hoarseness and vocal cord sequelae [31].

Gene context of Vocal Cords

  • Carbonic anhydrase III expression was not found in the vocal fold or in the majority of samples taken from the ventricle of LPR patients and was inversely associated with E-cadherin membranous expression [32].
  • The differences in TGF-alpha immunoreactivity were significant between primary laryngeal SCC and vocal cord polyps (P = 0.013; chi 2 test with continuity correction), and between metastatic laryngeal SCC and vocal cord polyps (P = 0.023; chi 2 test with continuity correction) [33].
  • Further clinical heterogeneity is suggested by CMT2 pedigrees with diaphragm and vocal cord weakness and are designated as CMT2C [34].
  • Success can be expected in over 90 per cent of cases but exploration is technically difficult and there is the possibility of creating permanent hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord paralysis [35].
  • METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected ADSD underwent unilateral RLN block, causing temporary ipsilateral vocal fold paralysis [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vocal Cords

  • Fewer children had significant vocal cord movement on laryngoscopy (P < 0.01) and more had ideal intubating conditions when halothane was used (12 of 20 compared with seven of 20; ns) [37].
  • This was easily managed, without resort to tracheostomy, by topical lignocaine which reduced the overactivity of the normal vocal cord [38].
  • Each patient received a further 100 mg of lignocaine solution through the bronchoscope onto the vocal cords and major airways during the procedure [39].
  • Use of general anesthesia permits the injection of Teflon paste into immobile vocal cords in an accurate and predictable manner, with the help of a special endotracheal tube and jetted O2 or O2/n2O mixture [40].
  • There were no significant differences between the proportion of patients who underwent or did not undergo sternotomy or thoracotomy regarding vocal cord dysfunction (2 [15%] of 13 patients vs 3 [13%] of 22 patients) or hypoparathyroidism (5 [38%] of 13 vs 6 [28%] of 22 patients) [41].


  1. Rheumatoid nodules of the vocal cords as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Schwartz, I.S., Grishman, E. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Hereditary distal muscular atrophy with vocal cord paralysis and sensorineural hearing loss: a dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy? Boltshauser, E., Lang, W., Spillmann, T., Hof, E. J. Med. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Not paralysis, but dystonia causes stridor in multiple system atrophy. Merlo, I.M., Occhini, A., Pacchetti, C., Alfonsi, E. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Deletion 9p22-pter and loss of Y as primary chromosome abnormalities in a squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord. Worsham, M.J., Benninger, M.J., Zarbo, R.J., Carey, T.E., Van Dyke, D.L. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Treatment of early and moderately advanced vocal cord carcinoma with 6-MV X-rays. Parsons, J.T., Greene, B.D., Speer, T.W., Kirkpatrick, S.A., Barhorst, D.B., Yanckowitz, T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. REM sleep behavior disorder and vocal cord paralysis in Machado-Joseph disease. Iranzo, A., Muñoz, E., Santamaria, J., Vilaseca, I., Milà, M., Tolosa, E. Mov. Disord. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Experimental tumor induction in a circumscribed region of the hamster trachea: correlation of histology and exfoliative cytology. Schreiber, H., Schreiber, K., Martin, D.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of vocal cord closure during deglutition. Flaherty, R.F., Seltzer, S., Campbell, T., Weisskoff, R.M., Gilbert, R.J. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Stridor and focal laryngeal dystonia. Marion, M.H., Klap, P., Perrin, A., Cohen, M. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Clinical, electrophysiological and morphological findings of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy with vocal cord palsy and mutations in the GDAP1 gene. Sevilla, T., Cuesta, A., Chumillas, M.J., Mayordomo, F., Pedrola, L., Palau, F., Vílchez, J.J. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Preservation of recurrent laryngeal nerve invaded by differentiated thyroid cancer. Nishida, T., Nakao, K., Hamaji, M., Kamiike, W., Kurozumi, K., Matsuda, H. Ann. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Vocal cord paralysis in myasthenia gravis following anesthesia. Colp, C., Kriplani, L., Nussbaum, M. Chest (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Postneuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesias: a cause of upper airway obstructive syndrome improved by local injections of botulinum toxin. Fève, A., Angelard, B., Fénelon, G., Logak, M., Guillard, A., Lacau Saint-Guily, J. Mov. Disord. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Roles of hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1 in production of extracellular matrix by canine vocal fold fibroblasts. Hirano, S., Bless, D., Heisey, D., Ford, C. Laryngoscope (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Radiance FN: a new soft tissue filler. Sklar, J.A., White, S.M. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Cisplatin induced reversible bilateral vocal cord paralysis: an undescribed complication of cisplatin. Taha, H., Irfan, S., Krishnamurthy, M. Head & neck. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential neuromuscular effects of vecuronium on the adductor and abductor laryngeal muscles and tibialis anterior muscle in dogs. Iwasaki, H., Igarashi, M., Namiki, A., Omote, K. British journal of anaesthesia. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. A comparison of the stress response to laryngoscopy. The Macintosh versus the McCoy blade. McCoy, E.P., Mirakhur, R.K., McCloskey, B.V. Anaesthesia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypercapnia increases expiratory braking in preterm infants. Eichenwald, E.C., Ungarelli, R.A., Stark, A.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Vocal cord and diaphragm paralysis, as clinical features of a French family with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, associated with a new mutation in the GDAP1 gene. Stojkovic, T., Latour, P., Viet, G., de Seze, J., Hurtevent, J.F., Vandenberghe, A., Vermersch, P. Neuromuscul. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Senescent expression of genes coding collagens, collagen-degrading metalloproteinases, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in rat vocal folds: comparison with skin and lungs. Ding, H., Gray, S.D. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Hyperfractionated radiation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: a comparison of two fractionation schedules. Garden, A.S., Morrison, W.H., Ang, K.K., Peters, L.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Tracheal intubation without the use of muscle relaxants: a technique using propofol and varying doses of alfentanil. Scheller, M.S., Zornow, M.H., Saidman, L.J. Anesth. Analg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Severe airway obstruction caused by laryngeal rheumatoid arthritis. Geterud, A., Ejnell, H., Månsson, I., Sandberg, N., Bake, B., Bjelle, A. J. Rheumatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Pathways and mechanisms involved in neural control of laryngeal submucosal gland secretion. Hejal, R., Strohl, K.P., Erokwu, B., Cherniack, N.S., Haxhiu, M.A. J. Appl. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Lymphatic vessel density in vocal cord carcinomas assessed with LYVE-1 receptor expression. Koskinen, W.J., Bono, P., Leivo, I., Vaheri, A., Aaltonen, L.M., Joensuu, H. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Respiratory disturbances during sleep in syringomyelia and syringobulbia. Nogués, M., Gené, R., Benarroch, E., Leiguarda, R., Calderón, C., Encabo, H. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Vecuronium neuromuscular blockade at the adductor muscles of the larynx and adductor pollicis. Donati, F., Meistelman, C., Plaud, B. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Changes in expression of extracellular matrix genes, fibrogenic factors, and actin cytoskeletal organization in retinol treated and untreated vocal fold stellate cells. Fuja, T.J., Probst-Fuja, M.N., Titze, I.R. Matrix Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Mivacurium neuromuscular block at the adductor muscles of the larynx and adductor pollicis in humans. Plaud, B., Debaene, B., Lequeau, F., Meistelman, C., Donati, F. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Laryngeal morbidity and quality of tracheal intubation: a randomized controlled trial. Mencke, T., Echternach, M., Kleinschmidt, S., Lux, P., Barth, V., Plinkert, P.K., Fuchs-Buder, T. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Laryngeal epithelial defenses against laryngopharyngeal reflux: investigations of E-cadherin, carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III, and pepsin. Gill, G.A., Johnston, N., Buda, A., Pignatelli, M., Pearson, J., Dettmar, P.W., Koufman, J. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. TGF-alpha immunoreactivity in laryngeal carcinoma: lack of prognostic value and correlation to EGF-receptor expression. Lee, C.S., Redshaw, A., Boag, G. The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Genetic heterogeneity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2. Yoshioka, R., Dyck, P.J., Chance, P.F. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Early localization and reoperation for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Sarfati, E., Billotey, C., Halimi, B., Fritsch, S., Cattan, P., Dubost, C. The British journal of surgery. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Lidocaine block of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a multidimensional assessment. Smith, M.E., Roy, N., Wilson, C. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Sevoflurane compared with halothane for tracheal intubation in children. O'Brien, K., Kumar, R., Morton, N.S. British journal of anaesthesia. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Respiratory obstruction following vocal cord injection of Teflon paste. Bates, G.J., Curley, J.W., Ward, M.E. Anaesthesia. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Comparison of nebulized and sprayed topical anaesthesia for fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Keane, D., McNicholas, W.T. Eur. Respir. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Teflon injection of vocal cords under general anesthesia: a new method. Carden, E., Browder, J.P., Fischer, N.D. Anesth. Analg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  41. Increased mortality and morbidity associated with thyroidectomy for intrathoracic goiters reaching the carina tracheae. Sancho, J.J., Kraimps, J.L., Sanchez-Blanco, J.M., Larrad, A., Rodríguez, J.M., Gil, P., Gibelin, H., Pereira, J.A., Sitges-Serra, A. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (2006) [Pubmed]
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