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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Trachea


High impact information on Trachea

  • CLCA proteins were discovered in bovine trachea and named for a calcium-dependent chloride conductance found in trachea and in other secretory epithelial tissues [6].
  • Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus [7].
  • These results indicate that Shh is required for the growth and differentiation of the oesophagus, trachea and lung, and suggest that mutations in SHH and its signalling components may be involved in foregut defects in humans [8].
  • Mutant mice lacking both Gli2 and Gli3 function did not form oesophagus, trachea and lung [7].
  • Immunofluorescence studies with these antibodies reveal that HMG-1 or components which immunologically cross-react with HMG-1 are present in the cytoplasm of Chinese hamster V-79, rat liver TR-12 and bovine trachea EBTr-NBL-4 cells [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Trachea


Biological context of Trachea


Anatomical context of Trachea


Associations of Trachea with chemical compounds


Gene context of Trachea

  • Translational readthrough in the hdc mRNA generates a novel branching inhibitor in the drosophila trachea [29].
  • The wg gene helps to pattern the developing trachea but is not responsible for all Wnt functions there [15].
  • Similarly, addition of hypotonic PBS to mouse trachea in vivo decreased AQP5 within 1 h, an effect blocked by ruthenium red [30].
  • We have isolated embryonic recessive lethal jing mutations that display genetic interactions in the embryonic CNS midline and trachea, with mutations in the bHLH-PAS genes single-minded and trachealess, and their downstream target genes (slit and breathless) [31].
  • Finally, we detected significant levels of GRIK2 expression in prostate, kidney, trachea, and lung, raising the possibility that this gene may be protective against multiple tumor types [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trachea


  1. Stimulatory effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on mucin secretion by the respiratory epithelium. Adler, K.B., Winn, W.C., Alberghini, T.V., Craighead, J.E. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Carcinoma of trachea following iodine-125 therapy for thyrotoxicosis. Gray, H.W., McKillop, J.H., McGurk, F.M., Davidson, K.G., Doig, J.A., Gillespie, F.C. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Reconstitution of tracheal grafts with a genetically modified epithelium. Engelhardt, J.F., Allen, E.D., Wilson, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Duration of cell cycle and its phases measured in synchronized cells of squamous cell carcinoma of rat trachea. Gordon, R.E., Lane, B.P. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. The putative heparin-specific N-acetylglucosaminyl N-Deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase also occurs in non-heparin-producing cells. Toma, L., Berninsone, P., Hirschberg, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and function of CLCA proteins. Loewen, M.E., Forsyth, G.W. Physiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus. Motoyama, J., Liu, J., Mo, R., Ding, Q., Post, M., Hui, C.C. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Sonic hedgehog is essential to foregut development. Litingtung, Y., Lei, L., Westphal, H., Chiang, C. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Antibodies against chromosomal HMG proteins stain the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Bustin, M., Neihart, N.K. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea. Wills, P.J., Hall, R.L., Chan, W., Cole, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Spindle cell carcinoma of the hamster trachea induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Stinson, S.F., Reznik-Schüller, H.M., Reznik, G., Donahoe, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of indomethacin on the response of bronchial epithelium to tobacco smoke. Greig, N., Ayers, M., Jeffery, P.K. J. Pathol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of erythromycin on endotoxin-induced microvascular leakage in the rat trachea and lungs. Tamaoki, J., Tagaya, E., Yamawaki, I., Sakai, N., Nagai, A., Konno, K. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Mycoplasma pulmonis infections cause long-lasting potentiation of neurogenic inflammation in the respiratory tract of the rat. McDonald, D.M., Schoeb, T.R., Lindsey, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Seven Wnt homologues in Drosophila: a case study of the developing tracheae. Llimargas, M., Lawrence, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Impaired neural tube closure, axial skeleton malformations, and tracheal ring disruption in TRAF4-deficient mice. Régnier, C.H., Masson, R., Kedinger, V., Textoris, J., Stoll, I., Chenard, M.P., Dierich, A., Tomasetto, C., Rio, M.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Morphogenesis of neoplasms induced in the hamster trachea with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Stinson, S.F., Lilga, J.C. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Preneoplastic and neoplastic growth of xenotransplanted lung-derived human cell lines using deepithelialized rat tracheas. Baba, M., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Trono, D., Obara, T., Yoakum, G.H., Masui, T., Harris, C.C. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Bradykinin-evoked sensitization of airway sensory nerves: a mechanism for ACE-inhibitor cough. Fox, A.J., Lalloo, U.G., Belvisi, M.G., Bernareggi, M., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning and functional analysis of human p51, which structurally and functionally resembles p53. Osada, M., Ohba, M., Kawahara, C., Ishioka, C., Kanamaru, R., Katoh, I., Ikawa, Y., Nimura, Y., Nakagawara, A., Obinata, M., Ikawa, S. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a possible transmitter of nonadrenergic relaxation of guinea pig airways. Matsuzaki, Y., Hamasaki, Y., Said, S.I. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Tubulogenesis in Drosophila: a requirement for the trachealess gene product. Isaac, D.D., Andrew, D.J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Interferon gamma regulates antigen-induced eosinophil recruitment into the mouse airways by inhibiting the infiltration of CD4+ T cells. Iwamoto, I., Nakajima, H., Endo, H., Yoshida, S. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Asbestos-induced epithelial changes in organ cultures of hamster trachea: inhibition by retinyl methyl ether. Mossman, B.T., Craighead, J.E., MacPherson, B.V. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanisms of impaired beta-adrenoceptor-induced airway relaxation by interleukin-1beta in vivo in the rat. Koto, H., Mak, J.C., Haddad, E.B., Xu, W.B., Salmon, M., Barnes, P.J., Chung, K.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Glucocorticoids inhibit neurogenic plasma extravasation and prevent virus-potentiated extravasation in the rat trachea. Piedimonte, G., McDonald, D.M., Nadel, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Signature current of SO2-induced bronchitis in rabbit. Iwase, N., Sasaki, T., Shimura, S., Fushimi, T., Okayama, H., Hoshi, H., Irokawa, T., Sasamori, K., Takahashi, K., Shirato, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of carcinogen release rate on the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium in rats. Shiba, M., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Marchok, A.C., Pal, B.C., Nettesheim, P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Translational readthrough in the hdc mRNA generates a novel branching inhibitor in the drosophila trachea. Steneberg, P., Englund, C., Kronhamn, J., Weaver, T.A., Samakovlis, C. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 regulates aquaporin-5 abundance under hypotonic conditions. Sidhaye, V.K., Güler, A.D., Schweitzer, K.S., D'Alessio, F., Caterina, M.J., King, L.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. The jing Zn-finger transcription factor is a mediator of cellular differentiation in the Drosophila CNS midline and trachea. Sedaghat, Y., Miranda, W.F., Sonnenfeld, M.J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. A fluorescence in situ hybridization map of 6q deletions in acute lymphocytic leukemia: identification and analysis of a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Sinclair, P.B., Sorour, A., Martineau, M., Harrison, C.J., Mitchell, W.A., O'Neill, E., Foroni, L. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. cDNA cloning, gene organization, and chromosomal localization of a human mercurial insensitive water channel. Evidence for distinct transcriptional units. Yang, B., Ma, T., Verkman, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Smad3 deficiency ameliorates experimental obliterative bronchiolitis in a heterotopic tracheal transplantation model. Ramirez, A.M., Takagawa, S., Sekosan, M., Jaffe, H.A., Varga, J., Roman, J. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Monoclonal antibodies directed against human airway secretions. Localization and characterization of antigens. Finkbeiner, W.E., Basbaum, C.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Experimental and clinical use of the YAG laser in the management of pulmonary neoplasms. Wolfe, W.G., Cole, P.H., Sabiston, D.C. Ann. Surg. (1984) [Pubmed]
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