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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dlx5 regulates chondrocyte differentiation at multiple stages.

Endochondral ossification, in which cartilaginous templates are progressively replaced by marrow and bone, represents the dominant mode of development of the axial and appendicular skeleton of vertebrates. Chondrocyte differentiation within the cartilaginous core of these skeletal elements is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Here, we describe the expression of Dlx5 in the cartilaginous core of limb skeletal elements in chicken and mouse embryos. We find that Dlx5 is one of the earliest genes expressed in condensing limb mesenchyme that will give rise to the limb skeleton. Later, when proliferating and differentiating chondrocytes are found in spatially distinct regions of the cartilaginous model, Dlx5 is expressed in the zone of hypertrophy and in proliferating chondrocytes that are poised to differentiate. Consistent with this pattern of expression, we show that forced expression of Dlx5 potentiates early and late chondrocyte differentiation and inhibits proliferation in cultured cells. Examination of the limbs of mutant Dlx5 mouse embryos revealed that they displayed a delay in chondrocyte maturation compared with wild type littermates. Taken together, our data reveal a positive role for Dlx5 during multiple stages of chondrocyte differentiation and, along with previous studies of Dlx5 and osteogenesis, identify Dlx5 as a general regulator of differentiation in the mouse skeleton.[1]


  1. Dlx5 regulates chondrocyte differentiation at multiple stages. Bendall, A.J., Hu, G., Levi, G., Abate-Shen, C. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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