The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Three pathways of Epstein-Barr virus gene activation from EBNA1-positive latency in B lymphocytes.

Previous studies on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lines have identified two distinct forms of virus latency. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated by virus-induced transformation of normal B cells in vitro, express the full spectrum of six EBNAs and three latent membrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, and LMP2B); furthermore, these lines often contain a small fraction of cells spontaneously entering the lytic cycle. In contrast, Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell lines retaining the tumor biopsy cell phenotype express only one of the latent proteins, the nuclear antigen EBNA1; such cells do not enter the lytic cycle spontaneously but may be induced to do so by treatment with such agents as tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate and anti-immunoglobulin. The present study set out to determine whether activation of full virus latent-gene expression was a necessary accompaniment to induction of the lytic cycle in Burkitt's lymphoma lines. Detailed analysis of Burkitt's lymphoma lines responding to anti-immunoglobulin treatment revealed three response pathways of EBV gene activation from EBNA1-positive latency. A first, rapid response pathway involves direct entry of cells into the lytic cycle without broadening of the pattern of latent gene expression; thereafter, the three "latent" LMPs are expressed as early lytic cycle antigens. A second, delayed response pathway in another cell subpopulation involves the activation of full latent gene expression and conversion to a lymphoblastoidlike cell phenotype. A third response pathway in yet another subpopulation involves the selective activation of LMPs, with no induction of the lytic cycle and with EBNA expression still restricted to EBNA1; this type of latent infection in B lymphocytes has hitherto not been described. Interestingly, the EBNA1+ LMP+ cells displayed some but not all of the phenotypic changes normally induced by LMP1 expression in a B-cell environment. These studies highlight the existence of four different types of EBV infection in B cells, including three distinct forms of latency, which we now term latency I, latency II, and latency III.[1]

References

  1. Three pathways of Epstein-Barr virus gene activation from EBNA1-positive latency in B lymphocytes. Rowe, M., Lear, A.L., Croom-Carter, D., Davies, A.H., Rickinson, A.B. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
 
WikiGenes - Universities