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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of novel reduced pyridinium derivatives as synthetic co-factors for the enzyme DT diaphorase (NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), EC

The enzyme DT diaphorase (NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), EC is unusual in that it can utilize either NADH or NADPH as a co-factor for the reduction of its substrates. We have shown that the intact NAD(P)H molecule is not required and that other reduced pyridinium compounds can also act as co-factors for DT diaphorase. The entire adenine dinucleotide portion of NAD(P)H can be dispensed with entirely and the simplest quaternary (and therefore reducible) derivative of nicotinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, was as effective as NAD(P)H as a co-factor for the reduction of the quinone, menadione. Nicotinamide 5'-O-benzoyl riboside was also as effective a co-factor as NAD(P)H, whilst nicotinamide ribotide and riboside have a higher Km, and decreased the kcat of DT diaphorase. Nicotinic acid derivatives had little activity. Kinetic analysis indicated that both nicotinamide ribotide and riboside may be interacting with the menadione binding site rather than the NAD(P)H site. Irrespective of the differences between the various reduced pyridinium derivatives in their ability to act as co-factors for the reduction of menadione by DT diaphorase, all the compounds that showed activity in this assay were equally effective co-factors for the reduction of the nitrobenzamide, CB 1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide). The apparent Km of DT diaphorase for all these co-factors approached zero. It was concluded that co-factor binding is not a rate-limiting step in the nitroreductase activity of DT diaphorase.[1]


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