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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Primary and secondary prevention of non-small-cell lung cancer: the SPORE Trials of Lung Cancer Prevention.

The aims of chemoprevention in lung cancer are to prevent the appearance of disease (primary prevention) and to stop or reverse the progression of premalignant lesions (secondary prevention). Until recently, there was little hope that these goals could be attained. However, the results achieved with tamoxifen in the prevention of breast cancer, and the emergence of new therapies specifically targeted to molecules involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer have set the stage for investigation of these agents for chemoprevention of lung cancer. Two of these new molecular targeted agents are gefitinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase activity, and tipifarnib (R115777, Zarnestra ), an inhibitor of the farnesyltransferase enzyme, which is required for the proper localization and function of the ras oncogene. Tumor responses and disease stabilization have been achieved with both agents in clinical trials. In the Iressa Dose Evaluation in Advanced Lung Cancer (IDEAL)-1 and IDEAL-2 phase II trials, gefitinib was demonstrated to be effective for disease control in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The SPORE (Specialized Program of Research Excellence) Trials of Lung Cancer Prevention (STOP) are 2 parallel studies that will investigate the potential effectiveness of gefitinib and tipifarnib in preventing the appearance and progression of premalignant lesions in former or current smokers with a history of smoking-related cancer. These trials should provide information not only about the potential role of gefitinib and tipifarnib in lung cancer chemoprevention, but also about the molecular changes that underlie tumorigenesis and that may serve as markers of disease progression. The STOP trial objectives are to evaluate the effect of gefitinib and tipifarnib on histologic and biologic parameters in patients with evidence of sputum atypia, to evaluate various parameters as potential predictors of the effectiveness of these agents, and to evaluate the tolerability of these agents over a 6-month course of treatment. Histologic response, defined as prevention of appearance or progression of premalignant lesions, is the primary endpoint of these trials. New targeted molecular therapies such as gefitinib and tipifarnib may offer the opportunity to make chemoprevention a viable treatment modality in lung cancer as well as in other human solid tumors.[1]


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