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MeSH Review

Primary Prevention

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Disease relevance of Primary Prevention


Psychiatry related information on Primary Prevention


High impact information on Primary Prevention


Chemical compound and disease context of Primary Prevention


Biological context of Primary Prevention

  • A crude analysis of preventable deaths suggests that evidence-based primary prevention (getting the population to stop smoking, exercise, lower cholesterol levels, and control blood pressure) would prevent considerably more deaths per year than would various evidence-based treatments for cardiovascular disease [19].
  • Seasonal variation of plasma cholesterol levels was studied in 1446 hypercholesterolemic 35- to 59-year-old male participants in the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial placebo group [20].
  • This review evaluates evidence of the effect of diet on insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance, and reflects on directions for future work toward primary prevention of type 2 diabetes [21].
  • All reports of primary prevention trials using cluster randomization that were published from 1990 to 1993 in the American Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine were identified [22].
  • In principle, data on the relation between genetic variation in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia could be used to corroborate the data on the relation between folate intake or status and the disease, strengthening the evidence base for primary prevention [23].

Anatomical context of Primary Prevention


Associations of Primary Prevention with chemical compounds


Gene context of Primary Prevention

  • Using the simple procedure and deriving the estimates of benefit from both primary prevention and therapeutic trials, we obtain an estimated reduction in risk of breast cancer from administration of tamoxifen in BRCA1 mutation positive women of 13% (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.68--1.11) [32].
  • An introduction to aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 inhibitors for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events and cancer and their potential preventive role in bladder carcinogenesis: part I [33].
  • Relevance: Evidence indicates that men and women who are susceptible to premenopausal onset of RA can each be identified long before their clinical onsets of disease, and that productive research in primary prevention is an achievable objective [34].
  • We investigated whether, in primary prevention patients with metabolic syndrome, statins affect the platelet protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) thrombin receptor by performing serial measurements of its activity and the antigen expression level by flow cytometry before and during treatment [35].
  • RESULTS: In the primary prevention trial, compared with placebo, pravastatin reduced median CRP levels by 16.9% (P<.001) at 24 weeks, reflecting a decrease of 0.02 mg/dL in the pravastatin group while no change in CRP levels was observed in the placebo group [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Primary Prevention


  1. Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Manson, J.E., Rimm, E.B., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Willett, W.C., Krolewski, A.S., Rosner, B., Hennekens, C.H., Speizer, F.E. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Primary prevention of cryptococcal meningitis by fluconazole in HIV-infected patients. Quagliarello, V.J., Viscoli, C., Horwitz, R.I. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Habitual physical activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men with primary hypercholesterolemia. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial. Gordon, D.J., Witztum, J.L., Hunninghake, D., Gates, S., Glueck, C.J. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Propranolol for the prevention of first esophageal variceal hemorrhage: a lifetime commitment? Abraczinskas, D.R., Ookubo, R., Grace, N.D., Groszmann, R.J., Bosch, J., Garcia-Tsao, G., Richardson, C.R., Matloff, D.S., Rodés, J., Conn, H.O. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Estrogen signals to the preservation of endothelial cell form and function. Razandi, M., Pedram, A., Levin, E.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. Manson, J.E., Nathan, D.M., Krolewski, A.S., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, W.C., Hennekens, C.H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Primary prevention drug therapy: can it meet patients' requirements for reduced risk? Llewellyn-Thomas, H.A., Paterson, J.M., Carter, J.A., Basinsk, A., Myers, M.G., Hardacre, G.D., Dunn, E.V., D'Agostino, R.B., Wolf, P.A., Naylor, C.D. Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Autotoxicity, methylation and a road to the prevention of Parkinson's disease. Williams, A.C., Ramsden, D.B. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Measurement of C-reactive protein for the targeting of statin therapy in the primary prevention of acute coronary events. Ridker, P.M., Rifai, N., Clearfield, M., Downs, J.R., Weis, S.E., Miles, J.S., Gotto, A.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of endoscopic ligation and propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Sarin, S.K., Lamba, G.S., Kumar, M., Misra, A., Murthy, N.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Omenn, G.S., Goodman, G.E., Thornquist, M.D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M.R., Glass, A., Keogh, J.P., Meyskens, F.L., Valanis, B., Williams, J.H., Barnhart, S., Hammar, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group. Girard, P.M., Landman, R., Gaudebout, C., Olivares, R., Saimot, A.G., Jelazko, P., Gaudebout, C., Certain, A., Boué, F., Bouvet, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study. Albert, M.A., Danielson, E., Rifai, N., Ridker, P.M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Change in public perspective on cholesterol and heart disease. Results from two national surveys. Schucker, B., Bailey, K., Heimbach, J.T., Mattson, M.E., Wittes, J.T., Haines, C.M., Gordon, D.J., Cutler, J.A., Keating, V.S., Goor, R.S. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Treating hyperlipidemia for the primary prevention of coronary disease. Are higher dosages of lovastatin cost-effective? Perreault, S., Hamilton, V.H., Lavoie, F., Grover, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease: pathophysiology, screening, and treatment. off. Stein, J.H., McBride, P.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: a randomized controlled open-label prospective trial. Meier, C., Woitge, H.W., Witte, K., Lemmer, B., Seibel, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Lipoproteins and coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Mänttäri, M., Huttunen, J.K., Koskinen, P., Manninen, V., Tenkanen, L., Heinonen, O.P., Frick, M.H. Eur. Heart J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The need for perspective in evidence-based medicine. Woolf, S.H. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Seasonal cholesterol cycles: the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial placebo group. Gordon, D.J., Trost, D.C., Hyde, J., Whaley, F.S., Hannan, P.J., Jacobs, D.R., Ekelund, L.G. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Nutrition and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Costacou, T., Mayer-Davis, E.J. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Accounting for cluster randomization: a review of primary prevention trials, 1990 through 1993. Simpson, J.M., Klar, N., Donnor, A. American journal of public health. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Colon cancer and genetic variation in folate metabolism: the clinical bottom line. Little, J., Sharp, L., Duthie, S., Narayanan, S. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Perspectives on soy protein as a nonpharmacological approach for lowering cholesterol. Goldberg, A.C. J. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis by lovastatin in a genetically hyperlipidaemic rabbit strain. La Ville, A.E., Seddon, A.M., Shaikh, M., Rowles, P.M., Woolf, N., Lewis, B. Atherosclerosis (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Level of awareness of on-treatment patients about prescribed statins. Yilmaz, M.B., Biyikoglu, S.F., Guray, Y., Karabal, O., Caldir, V., Cay, S., Sahin, O., Sasmaz, H., Korkmaz, S. Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. A controlled study of inhaled pentamidine for primary prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hirschel, B., Lazzarin, A., Chopard, P., Opravil, M., Furrer, H.J., Rüttimann, S., Vernazza, P., Chave, J.P., Ancarani, F., Gabriel, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Treatment of hyperlipidemia in women. Walsh, J.M., Grady, D. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ezekowitz, M.D., Levine, J.A. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. Rimm, E.B., Willett, W.C., Hu, F.B., Sampson, L., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Hennekens, C., Stampfer, M.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Primary prevention with metoprolol in patients with hypertension. Mortality results from the MAPHY study. Wikstrand, J., Warnold, I., Olsson, G., Tuomilehto, J., Elmfeldt, D., Berglund, G. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Estimates of the likely prophylactic effect of tamoxifen in women with high risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Duffy, S.W., Nixon, R.M. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. An introduction to aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 inhibitors for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events and cancer and their potential preventive role in bladder carcinogenesis: part I. Moyad, M.A. Semin. Urol. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Neuroendocrine, immunologic, and microvascular systems interactions in rheumatoid arthritis: physiopathogenetic and therapeutic perspectives. Masi, A.T., Bijlsma, J.W., Chikanza, I.C., Pitzalis, C., Cutolo, M. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of Statins on Platelet PAR-1 Thrombin Receptor in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome (From the PAR-1 Inhibition by Statins [PARIS] Study). Serebruany, V.L., Miller, M., Pokov, A.N., Malinin, A.I., Lowry, D.R., Tanguay, J.F., Hennekens, C.H. Am. J. Cardiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Should we be measuring blood cholesterol levels in young adults? Hulley, S.B., Newman, T.B., Grady, D., Garber, A.M., Baron, R.B., Browner, W.S. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Individual responsiveness to a cholesterol-lowering diet in postmenopausal women with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Denke, M.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. The evolving role of statins in the management of atherosclerosis. Vaughan, C.J., Gotto, A.M., Basson, C.T. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Antithrombotic treatment and the incidence of angina pectoris. Knottenbelt, C., Brennan, P.J., Meade, T.W. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell proliferative response to house dust mite does not predict the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Chan-Yeung, M., Ferguson, A., Chan, H., Dimich-Ward, H., Watson, W., Manfreda, J., Becker, A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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