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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Sputum


High impact information on Sputum

  • In the tobramycin group, the density of P. aeruginosa decreased by an average of 0.8 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of expectorated sputum from week 0 to week 20, as compared with an increase of 0.3 log10 CFU per gram in the placebo group (P<0.001) [6].
  • Pulmonary function, the density of P. aeruginosa in sputum, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and the emergence of tobramycin-resistant P. aeruginosa were monitored [7].
  • Sputum samples from CF patients were shown to contain filamentous actin [1].
  • Diagnosis has been improved by the development of organism-specific monoclonal antibodies and, more recently, by polymerase chain reaction using multicopy gene targets, together with induced sputum or oral wash samples [8].
  • However, the significance of these findings is tempered by substantial spontaneous variation in sputum cytologies, the small study population, the short duration of the trial, and the supraphysiological doses of folate and B12 used [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sputum

  • On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM [10].
  • Ciprofloxacin did not select resistant gram-negative bacteria in the stool, although sputum isolates showed increases in minimal inhibitory concentrations [11].
  • In addition, sputum VEGF concentrations correlated with the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in patients with emphysema (r = 0.87; P <0.0001), but not in those with bronchitis (r = -0.22; P =0.36) [12].
  • Cough productive of sputum, exertional dyspnea, and hypoxemia developed in two patients with Graves' disease after six months (patient 1) or three weeks (patient 2) of treatment with propylthiouracil, 300 mg/day [13].
  • Eosinophilic bronchitis was diagnosed if patients had no symptoms suggesting variable airflow obstruction, and had normal spirometric values, normal peak expiratory flow variability, no airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decrease in FEV(1) ([PC(20)] > 8 mg/ml), and sputum eosinophilia (> 3%) [14].

Biological context of Sputum


Anatomical context of Sputum


Associations of Sputum with chemical compounds

  • A decrease in the density of P. aeruginosa in sputum by a factor of 100 (P < 0.001) was found during all periods of tobramycin administration [7].
  • To determine if examination of respiratory secretions is useful in diagnosing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, smear preparations of expectorated sputum, tracheal aspirates, and transtracheal aspirates stained by the Gomori methenamine silver nitrate method were examined [23].
  • In corresponding analyses of sputum from eight patients with non-tuberculous pneumonia, tuberculostearic acid was not found [2].
  • After inhaled allergen challenge, 9 days after treatment, the percentage sputum eosinophils were 12.2% in the placebo group and lowered to 0.9% (-1.2 to 3.0; p=0.0076) in the 10 mg/kg group, and this effect persisted at day 30 after the dose [24].
  • Histamine and IgE were present in considerable amounts in the sputum of bronchitics and early-onset, skin-test-positive asthmatics [25].

Gene context of Sputum

  • RESULTS: Trends towards superior responses to tuberculosis treatment were evident in etanercept-treated subjects in body mass, performance score, number of involved lung zones, cavitary closure, and time to sputum culture conversion [26].
  • In patients with CF, sputum levels of IL-8 were elevated (p < 0.01) as compared with asthmatic patients [27].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Exacerbation of COPD is associated with greater nasal, sputum, and serum inflammation than the stable state [28].
  • TNF-alpha and IL-8 were significantly elevated in the sputum of patients during acute COPD exacerbation compared with when they were clinically stable (p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively) [29].
  • In contrast, PBS-processed sputum resulted in an eotaxin spike recovery of 101% (SD, 20%) [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sputum


  1. Reduction in viscosity of cystic fibrosis sputum in vitro by gelsolin. Vasconcellos, C.A., Allen, P.G., Wohl, M.E., Drazen, J.M., Janmey, P.A., Stossel, T.P. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Demonstration of tuberculostearic acid in sputum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by selected ion monitoring. Odham, G., Larsson, L., Mårdh, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Soluble ICAM-1 in sputum of patients with bronchial asthma. Chihara, J., Yamamoto, T., Kurachi, D., Nakajima, S. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Sputum substance P in aspiration pneumonia. Nakagawa, T., Ohrui, T., Sekizawa, K., Sasaki, H. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Detection of K-ras point mutations in sputum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung by point-EXACCT. Somers, V.A., Pietersen, A.M., Theunissen, P.H., Thunnissen, F.B. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis Inhaled Tobramycin Study Group. Ramsey, B.W., Pepe, M.S., Quan, J.M., Otto, K.L., Montgomery, A.B., Williams-Warren, J., Vasiljev-K, M., Borowitz, D., Bowman, C.M., Marshall, B.C., Marshall, S., Smith, A.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Efficacy of aerosolized tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Ramsey, B.W., Dorkin, H.L., Eisenberg, J.D., Gibson, R.L., Harwood, I.R., Kravitz, R.M., Schidlow, D.V., Wilmott, R.W., Astley, S.J., McBurnie, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. New insights into transmission, diagnosis, and drug treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Kovacs, J.A., Gill, V.J., Meshnick, S., Masur, H. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B12. Report of a preliminary randomized, double-blind intervention trial. Heimburger, D.C., Alexander, C.B., Birch, R., Butterworth, C.E., Bailey, W.C., Krumdieck, C.L. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea. Wills, P.J., Hall, R.L., Chan, W., Cole, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of ciprofloxacin on fecal flora of patients with cystic fibrosis and other patients treated with oral ciprofloxacin. Scully, B.E., Jules, K., Chin, N.X., Neu, H.C. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Possible effects of vascular endothelial growth factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Kanazawa, H., Asai, K., Hirata, K., Yoshikawa, J. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Propylthiouracil-induced diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. Miyazono, K., Okazaki, T., Uchida, S., Totsuka, Y., Matsumoto, T., Ogata, E., Terakawa, K., Kurihara, N., Takeda, T. Arch. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Brightling, C.E., Ward, R., Goh, K.L., Wardlaw, A.J., Pavord, I.D. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Inactivation of hMLH1 and hMSH2 by promoter methylation in primary non-small cell lung tumors and matched sputum samples. Wang, Y.C., Lu, Y.P., Tseng, R.C., Lin, R.K., Chang, J.W., Chen, J.T., Shih, C.M., Chen, C.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Predicting lung cancer by detecting aberrant promoter methylation in sputum. Palmisano, W.A., Divine, K.K., Saccomanno, G., Gilliland, F.D., Baylin, S.B., Herman, J.G., Belinsky, S.A. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Ipratropium bromide in asthma. A review of the literature. Schlueter, D.P. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Analysis of cellular and biochemical constituents of induced sputum after allergen challenge: a method for studying allergic airway inflammation. Fahy, J.V., Liu, J., Wong, H., Boushey, H.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Formation of Charcot-Leyden crystals by human basophils. Ackerman, S.J., Weil, G.J., Gleich, G.J. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel Pseudomonas product stimulates interleukin-8 production in airway epithelial cells in vitro. Massion, P.P., Inoue, H., Richman-Eisenstat, J., Grunberger, D., Jorens, P.G., Housset, B., Pittet, J.F., Wiener-Kronish, J.P., Nadel, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Sputum eosinophilia and short-term response to prednisolone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Brightling, C.E., Monteiro, W., Ward, R., Parker, D., Morgan, M.D., Wardlaw, A.J., Pavord, I.D. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Cleavage of lymphocyte surface antigens CD2, CD4, and CD8 by polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G in patients with cystic fibrosis. Döring, G., Frank, F., Boudier, C., Herbert, S., Fleischer, B., Bellon, G. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Diagnosis by examination of pulmonary secretions. Lau, W.K., Young, L.S., Remington, J.S. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of an interleukin-5 blocking monoclonal antibody on eosinophils, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the late asthmatic response. Leckie, M.J., ten Brinke, A., Khan, J., Diamant, Z., O'Connor, B.J., Walls, C.M., Mathur, A.K., Cowley, H.C., Chung, K.F., Djukanovic, R., Hansel, T.T., Holgate, S.T., Sterk, P.J., Barnes, P.J. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Mediators of immediate-type hypersensitivity in sputum from patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. Turnbull, L.S., Turnbull, L.W., Leitch, A.G., Crofton, J.W., Kay, A.B. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. A study of the safety, immunology, virology, and microbiology of adjunctive etanercept in HIV-1-associated tuberculosis. Wallis, R.S., Kyambadde, P., Johnson, J.L., Horter, L., Kittle, R., Pohle, M., Ducar, C., Millard, M., Mayanja-Kizza, H., Whalen, C., Okwera, A. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Cytokine concentrations in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and their relation to eosinophil activity. Koller, D.Y., Nething, I., Otto, J., Urbanek, R., Eichler, I. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Systemic and upper and lower airway inflammation at exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hurst, J.R., Perera, W.R., Wilkinson, T.M., Donaldson, G.C., Wedzicha, J.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Granulocyte inflammatory markers and airway infection during acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Aaron, S.D., Angel, J.B., Lunau, M., Wright, K., Fex, C., Le Saux, N., Dales, R.E. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Measurement of eotaxin (CCL11) in induced sputum supernatants: validation and detection in asthma. Hadjicharalambous, C., Dent, G., May, R.D., Handy, R.L., Anderson, I.K., Davies, D.E., Djukanovic, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin in lung secretions is not an effective proteinase inhibitor. Berman, G., Afford, S.C., Burnett, D., Stockley, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a historical perspective on recent developments. Haas, D.W., Des Prez, R.M. Am. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Airway inflammation, exhaled nitric oxide, and severity of asthma in patients with western red cedar asthma. Chan-Yeung, M., Obata, H., Dittrick, M., Chan, H., Abboud, R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
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