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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of human IL-18 gene expression: interaction of PU.1 with GC-box binding protein is involved in human IL-18 expression in myeloid cells.

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which participates in host defense against a variety of infections as well as in chronic inflammation including autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about human IL-18 regulation at the gene level. We have previously demonstrated that sodium butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product, induces IL-18 production via the proximal region of the promoter. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms for basal and sodium butyrate-induced expression of IL-18 in human myeloid cells. Two regulatory regions, a consensus binding site for PU.1 and a GC-rich region, are required for basal IL-18 promoter activity in human myeloid cells. PU.1 bound to the PU.1 consensus binding site in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and overexpression of PU.1 led to activation of the IL-18 promoter through this site. Mutation analysis revealed that the GC-rich region, but not PU.1 site, participates in sodium butyrate-induced transactivation. Furthermore, DNA pull-down experiments and the critical spacing of the two binding sites suggest that formation of a protein complex involving both cis elements and the respective binding proteins might be crucial for human IL-18 expression.[1]


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