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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Aldosterone administration to mice stimulates macrophage NADPH oxidase and increases atherosclerosis development: a possible role for angiotensin-converting enzyme and the receptors for angiotensin II and aldosterone.

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, partially because of its pro-oxidative properties. We questioned the effect and mechanisms of action of administration of aldosterone to apolipoprotein E-deficient (E(0)) mice on their macrophages and aorta oxidative status and the ability of pharmacological agents to block this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aldosterone (0.2 to 6 microg. mouse(-1) x d(-1)) was administered to E(0) mice alone or in combination with eplerenone (200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), ramipril (5 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), or losartan (25 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Mouse aortic atherosclerotic lesion area and macrophage and aortic oxidative status were evaluated. Aldosterone administration enhanced the mouse atherosclerotic lesion area by 32%. Mouse peritoneal macrophages and aortic segments from aldosterone-treated mice exhibited increased superoxide anion formation by up to 155% and 69%, respectively, and this effect was probably mediated by NADPH oxidase activation, because increased translocation of its cytosolic component p47phox to the macrophage plasma membrane was observed. THP-1 macrophages incubated in vitro with aldosterone (10 micromol/L) exhibited a higher capacity to release superoxide ions by 110% and increased ability to oxidize LDL by 74% compared with control cells. Aldosterone administration enhanced mouse peritoneal macrophage ACE activity and mRNA expression by 2.3-fold and 2.4-fold, respectively. Only cotreatment of eplerenone with ramipril or losartan completely blocked the oxidative effects of aldosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Aldosterone administration to E(0) mice increased macrophage oxidative stress and atherosclerotic lesion development. Blocking of the mineralocorticoid receptor and inhibition of tissue ACE and/or the angiotensin receptor-1 reduced aldosterone deleterious pro-oxidative and proatherogenic effects.[1]


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