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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of morphine analgesia by LPS: role of opioid and NMDA receptors and spinal glia.

Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of toxins, such as the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is associated with a well-characterized increase in sensitivity to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) [Watkins LR, Maier SF, Goehler LE. Immune activation: the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammation, illness responses and pathological pain states. Pain 1995;63:289-302. [53]] and a longer-lasting reduction in opioid analgesia (anti-analgesia) when pain sensitivity returns to basal levels [Johnston IN, Westbrook RF. Acute and conditioned sickness reduces morphine analgesia. Behav Brain Res 2003;142:89-97]. Here we show that this inhibition of morphine analgesia 24 h after a single i.p. injection of LPS involves mechanisms that contribute to illness-induced hyperalgesia and the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine. Specifically, morphine analgesia was restored if LPS was preceded by systemic administration of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801), spinal infusion of a glial metabolic inhibitor (fluorocitrate), or intracerebroventricular microinjection of an opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone). Morphine analgesia was also restored if MK-801 was administered after LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS recruits similar, if not the same mechanisms that reduce morphine tolerance following opiate administration: namely, stimulation of opioid and NMDA receptors and recruitment of spinal glia.[1]


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