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Gene Review

Pou3f3  -  POU class 3 homeobox 3

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Brain-1, Brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 1, Brn-1, Brn1, POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 3, ...
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Disease relevance of Pou3f3

  • Rats were exposed to a physiological stimulus, i.e., running, or a brain insult, i.e., status epilepticus, which gave rise to neuronal death, inflammation, and chronic seizures [1].
  • A model for medulloblastoma-like primitive neuroectodermal tumors was established in rat using retrovirally transduced SV40 large T antigen (LT) as an inducing agent (O. D. Wiestler et al., Brain Pathol., 2: 47-59, 1992) [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Brain death causes progressive liver dysfunction, which is made worse by the coexistence of hemodynamic instability [3].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain acidosis from cerebral ischemia is characterized by average intracellular pH levels of approximately 5.8-6.2, which appear in turn to worsen cellular injury [4].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain temperature during ischemia is known to strongly influence the extent of cellular injury [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pou3f3

  • However, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs consolidation of declarative memory in humans [Science 287 (2000) 248]; [Nature 371 (1994) 702] and consolidation and reconsolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in rats [Brain Res 368 (1986) 125]; [J Neurosci 19 (1999) 6623] [6].
  • In a previous study, we found that electrolytic lesions of the PRh produced retrograde amnesia, without a temporal gradient, for water-maze problems acquired 4 weeks and 2 days before surgery [Behav. Brain. Res. 114 (2000) 119] [7].
  • We recently showed that over 70% of these c-Fos immunoreactive neurons are GABAergic [M. Morales, J.R. Criado, P.P. Sanna, S.J. Henriksen, F.E. Bloom, Acute ethanol induces c-fos immunoreactivity in GABAergic neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala, Brain Res, 798 (1998) 333-336] [8].
  • Glucose loading of rats made thiamin deficient by dietary deprivation of thiamin and the administration of pyrithiamin (40 microg/100 g, i.p.) precipitates an acute neuropathy, a model of Wernicke's encephalopathy in man (Zimitat and Nixon, Metab. Brain Dis. 1999;14:1-20) [9].
  • To reveal brain regions most significantly related to individual differences in exploratory behaviour, oxidative metabolism was measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in 2 months old Wistar rats with persistently high (HE) or low (LE) exploratory activity in a novel environment [10].

High impact information on Pou3f3

  • The deduced amino acid sequence of pCSC-1 displayed a striking degree of homology with the eel, rat brain-1, and rat brain-2 Na+ channel, thereby identifying pCSC-1 as a related member of the family of Na+ channel genes [11].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain stem premotor neurons control swallowing through contacts with both afferent neurons and motoneurons [12].
  • We used a tissue culture system in which fetal rat dorsal root ganglia, treated to eliminate contaminating fibroblasts (Wood, P., 1976, Brain Res. 115:361--375), appear to recapitulate many aspects of the developing peripheral nervous system [13].
  • The amount of prostaglandin D2 increased significantly in the preoptic/hypothalamic region of rat brain 1 hr after the intraperitoneal administration of the lipopolysaccharide, whereas such increase was not observed in rats pretreated with indomethacin [14].
  • As deduced previously (LeVay, S., D. H. Hubel, and T. N. Wiesel (1975) J. Comp. Neurol. 159: 559-576; Hubel, D. H., and D. C., Freeman (1977) Brain Res. 122: 336-343), there were portions of the map in which the stripes followed curves approximating isoeccentricity lines, but this relationship was not very exact or consistent [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pou3f3


Biological context of Pou3f3


Anatomical context of Pou3f3

  • Using RNase protection and Northern blot hybridization with specific rat brain Na+ channel gene probes, expression of the rat brain-1 Na+ channel was observed in rat myocardium, but no detectable expression of the rat brain-2 gene was found [11].
  • No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups [25].
  • In previous study (Lewis, E.R., and C. W. Cotman (1980) Brain Res. 96: 307--330; E. R. Lewis and C. W. Cotman, submitted for publication), we have shown that septal tissues grafted to the brain of a neonatal rat will extend fibers into special terminal laminae within the hippocampal formation of the recipient [26].
  • (Verhofstad, A. A. J., H. W. M. Steinbusch, B. Penke J. Varga, and H. W. J. Joosten (1981) Brain Res. 212: 39-49) have reported that serotonin of the rat superior cervical ganglion is contained in a distinct and separate population of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells [27].
  • In contrast, ascending inputs to the lateral septum appear to define at least 20 vertically oriented bands or subdivisions arranged orthogonal to the hippocampal input (Risold, P.Y. and Swanson, L.W., Chemoarchitecture of the rat lateral septal nucleus, Brain Res. Rev., 24 (1997) 91-113) [28].

Associations of Pou3f3 with chemical compounds

  • Individual nuclei were removed from 300-micrometers frozen sections according to the punch-out method of Palkovits (Palkovits, M. (1973) Brain Res. 59: 449-450), and the content of E2 receptor was measured with a sensitive radioligand binding method [29].
  • The sequence of the cDNA was compared to that recently published for kidney (brain)-type glutaminase (Banner, C., Hwang, J.-J., Shapiro, R.A., Wenthold, R.J., Nakatani, Y., Lampel, K.A., Thomas, J.W., Huie, D., and Curthoys, N.P. (1988) Mol. Brain Res. 3, 247-254) [30].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain dopamine has been implicated as a mediator of brain neuronal damage resulting from ischemic injury [31].
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic treatment of rats with certain selective serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors produces significant decreases, respectively, in serotonin and norepinephrine transporter binding sites in brain [22].
  • The efflux transport of the substrates of system A, such as L-proline (L-Pro), glycine (Gly), and alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), across the BBB was investigated using the in vivo Brain Efflux Index method [32].

Regulatory relationships of Pou3f3


Other interactions of Pou3f3

  • Using a HO-1 cDNA probe, we examined the level of HO-1 mRNA in normal rat brain and in brain 1 and 6 h following heat shock [35].
  • The "paracrine core" of the nervous system and its adjunct (1985, Nieuwenhuys, Chemoarchitecture of the Brain. Springer, Berlin) is very rich in calbindin D-28k [36].
  • Age-dependent changes in NMDAR subunit gene expression were observed in hippocampi of rats chronically exposed to Pb2+ during development [T.R. Guilarte, J.L. McGlothan, Hippocampal NMDA receptor mRNA undergoes subunit specific changes during developmental lead exposure, Brain Res. 790 (1998) 98-107] [37].
  • PURPOSE: To establish a method for isolating highly purified brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) from rat brain by using magnetic cell sorting, and clarify the expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) subtypes in these highly purified BCECs [38].
  • It has been identified that insulin was present in the central nervous system (CNS) with some types of action there, and it exerted important actions within the brain and functions as neuropeptide [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pou3f3


  1. Environment matters: synaptic properties of neurons born in the epileptic adult brain develop to reduce excitability. Jakubs, K., Nanobashvili, A., Bonde, S., Ekdahl, C.T., Kokaia, Z., Kokaia, M., Lindvall, O. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased oncogenicity of subclones of SV40 large T-induced neuroectodermal tumor cell lines after loss of large T expression and concomitant mutation in p53. Salewski, H., Bayer, T.A., Eidhoff, U., Preuss, U., Weggen, S., Scheidtmann, K.H. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of brain death and hemodynamic status on function and immunologic activation of the potential donor liver in the rat. van Der Hoeven, J.A., Ter Horst, G.J., Molema, G., de Vos, P., Girbes, A.R., Postema, F., Freund, R.L., Wiersema, J., van Schilfgaarde, R., Ploeg, R.J. Ann. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Tolerance of low cerebral intracellular pH in rats during hyperbaric hypercapnia. Xu, Y., Cohen, Y., Litt, L., Chang, L.H., James, T.L. Stroke (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Spontaneous cerebral hypothermia diminishes focal infarction in rat brain. Moyer, D.J., Welsh, F.A., Zager, E.L. Stroke (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Disruption of reconsolidation but not consolidation of auditory fear conditioning by noradrenergic blockade in the amygdala. Debiec, J., Ledoux, J.E. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Perirhinal cortex lesions produce variable patterns of retrograde amnesia in rats. Glenn, M.J., Nesbitt, C., Mumby, D.G. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Acute ethanol induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity in pre-pro-enkephalin expressing neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Criado, J.R., Morales, M. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Glucose induced IEG expression in the thiamin-deficient rat brain. Zimitat, C., Nixon, P.F. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Cerebral oxidative metabolism in rats with high and low exploratory activity. Matrov, D., Kolts, I., Harro, J. Neurosci. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of diverse Na+ channel messenger RNAs in rat myocardium. Evidence for a cardiac-specific Na+ channel. Sills, M.N., Xu, Y.C., Baracchini, E., Goodman, R.H., Cooperman, S.S., Mandel, G., Chien, K.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Brain stem localization of rodent esophageal premotor neurons revealed by transneuronal passage of pseudorabies virus. Barrett, R.T., Bao, X., Miselis, R.R., Altschuler, S.M. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Studies of Schwann cell proliferation. I. An analysis in tissue culture of proliferation during development, Wallerian degeneration, and direct injury. Salzer, J.L., Bunge, R.P. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of prostaglandin D2 in the hypothermia of rats caused by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Ueno, R., Narumiya, S., Ogorochi, T., Nakayama, T., Ishikawa, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The complete pattern of ocular dominance stripes in the striate cortex and visual field of the macaque monkey. LeVay, S., Connolly, M., Houde, J., Van Essen, D.C. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Mast cell blocking reduces brain edema and hematoma volume and improves outcome after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Strbian, D., Tatlisumak, T., Ramadan, U.A., Lindsberg, P.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Roles of brain angiotensin II and C-type natriuretic peptide in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in rats. Nishimura, M., Ohtsuka, K., Sakamoto, M., Nanbu, A., Takahashi, H., Yoshimura, M. J. Hypertens. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Cerebral protective effect of low-grade hypothermia. Berntman, L., Welsh, F.A., Harp, J.R. Anesthesiology (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Nerve growth factor and choline acetyltransferase activity levels in the rat brain following experimental impairment of cerebral glucose and energy metabolism. Hellweg, R., Nitsch, R., Hock, C., Jaksch, M., Hoyer, S. J. Neurosci. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of naftidrofuryl oxalate on microsphere embolism-induced decrease in regional blood flow of rat brain. Miyake, K., Takagi, N., Takeo, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Redundancy of class III POU proteins in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Schreiber, J., Enderich, J., Sock, E., Schmidt, C., Richter-Landsberg, C., Wegner, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of chronic administration of duloxetine on serotonin and norepinephrine transporter binding sites in rat brain. Gould, G.G., Javors, M.A., Frazer, A. Biol. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after brain ischemia in the rat. Piantadosi, C.A., Zhang, J. Stroke (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduced Brain DHA Content After a Single Reproductive Cycle in Female Rats Fed a Diet Deficient in N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Levant, B., Radel, J.D., Carlson, S.E. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats. Srivastava, M.K., Raizada, R.B. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanisms of septal lamination in the developing hippocampus analyzed by outgrowth of fibers from septal implants. II. Absence of guidance by degenerative debris. Lewis, E.R., Cotman, C.W. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Trans-synaptic modulation via muscarinic receptors of serotonin-containing small intensely fluorescent cells of superior cervical ganglion. Hadjiconstantinou, M., Potter, P.E., Neff, N.H. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Connections of the rat lateral septal complex. Risold, P.Y., Swanson, L.W. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Estradiol receptor levels in rat hypothalamic and limbic nuclei. Rainbow, T.C., Parsons, B., MacLusky, N.J., McEwen, B.S. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for rat hepatic glutaminase. Sequence similarity to kidney-type glutaminase. Smith, E.M., Watford, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Hypothalamic dopamine release and local cerebral blood flow during onset of heatstroke in rats. Kao, T.Y., Chio, C.C., Lin, M.T. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. ATA2 is predominantly expressed as system A at the blood-brain barrier and acts as brain-to-blood efflux transport for L-proline. Takanaga, H., Tokuda, N., Ohtsuki, S., Hosoya, K., Terasaki, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Changes in the Subcellular Distribution of Microtubule-Associated Protein 1B During Synaptogenesis of Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons. Kitamura, C., Shirai, K., Inoue, M., Tashiro, T. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Assessment by c-Fos Immunostaining of Changes in Brain Neural Activity Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Leptin in Rats*. Lensu, S., Miettinen, R., Pohjanvirta, R., Lindén, J., Tuomisto, J. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Normal and heat-induced patterns of expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in rat brain: hyperthermia causes rapid induction of mRNA and protein. Ewing, J.F., Haber, S.N., Maines, M.D. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system. Celio, M.R. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. NMDAR-2A subunit protein expression is reduced in the hippocampus of rats exposed to Pb2+ during development. Nihei, M.K., Guilarte, T.R. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Establishing a Method to Isolate Rat Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells by Magnetic Cell Sorting and Dominant mRNA Expression of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1 and 4 in Highly Purified Rat Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells. Ohtsuki, S., Yamaguchi, H., Asashima, T., Terasaki, T. Pharm. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Imaging on the binding of FITC-Insulin with Insulin Receptors in cortical neurons of Rat. Luo, Y., Xu, H., Huang, K., Zhang, Z., Luo, Q., Liu, Q. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs are associated with blood-brain barrier opening after reperfusion in rat brain. Rosenberg, G.A., Estrada, E.Y., Dencoff, J.E. Stroke (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Chronic myo-inositol increases rat brain phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen. Pettegrew, J.W., Panchalingam, K., Levine, J., McClure, R.J., Gershon, S., Yao, J.K. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Correlation between angiogenesis and basic fibroblast growth factor expression in experimental brain infarct. Chen, H.H., Chien, C.H., Liu, H.M. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Effect of dopamine on inflammatory status in kidneys of brain-dead rats. Schaub, M., Ploetz, C.J., Gerbaulet, D., Fang, L., Kranich, P., Stadlbauer, T.H., Goettman, U., Yard, B.A., Braun, C., Schnuelle, P., van der Woude, F.J. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
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