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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger is regulated by allosteric calcium and exchanger inhibitory peptide at distinct sites.

The sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger ( NCX) is the main Ca2+ extrusion mechanism in cardiac myocytes and is thus essential for the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and contractile function. A cytosolic region (f-loop) of the protein mediates regulation of NCX function by intracellular factors including inhibition by exchanger inhibitory peptide ( XIP), a 20 amino acid peptide matching the sequence of an autoinhibitory region involved in allosteric regulation of NCX by intracellular Na+, Ca2+, and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). Previous evidence indicates that the XIP interaction domain can be eliminated by large deletions of the f-loop that also remove activation of NCX by intracellular Ca2+. By whole-cell voltage clamping experiments, we demonstrate that deletion of residues 562-679, but not 440- 456, 498-510, or 680-685 of the f-loop selectively eliminates XIP- mediated inhibition of NCX expressed either heterologously (HEK293 and A549 cells) or in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. In contrast, by plotting I(NCX) against reverse-mode NCX-mediated Ca2+ transients in myocytes, we demonstrate that Ca2+-dependent regulation of NCX is preserved in Delta562-679, but significantly reduced in the other three deletion mutants. The findings indicate that f-loop residues 562-679 may contain the regulatory site for endogenous XIP, but this site is distinct from the Ca2+-regulatory domains of the NCX. Because regulation of the NCX by Na+ and PIP2 involves the endogenous XIP region, the Delta562-679 mutant NCX may be a useful tool to investigate this regulation in the context of the whole cardiac myocyte.[1]


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