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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Time-dependent toxicity of fluoranthene to freshwater invertebrates and the role of biotransformation on lethal body residues.

The time-dependent toxicity of fluoranthene was examined for Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Diporeia spp. C. tentans appeared to be the most sensitive species, and Diporeia was the least sensitive. Incipient LC50 values, the concentration at which the LC50 reaches an asymptote and does not change with increasing duration of exposure, for H. azteca and C. tentans were approximately 60 and 40 microg x L(-1), respectively. Incipient levels were not reached for Diporeia; however, the 28-d LC50 concentration was 95.5 microg x L(-1). There was a temporal relationship with respect to lethal body residues for each of the test species. For H. azteca, the LR50, the median lethal residue at an identified exposure time required to cause 50% mortality, based on total fluoranthene equivalents (parent + metabolite compounds) decreased from 3.19 micromol x g(-1) at 5 d to 0.80 micromol x g(-1) at 28 d. For C. tentans, the LR50 decreased from 0.43 to 0.17 micromol x g(-1) from 2 to 10 d. The 10-d LR50 for Diporeia was 9.97 micromol x g(-1), and the 28-d value was 3.67 micromol x g(-1). The toxicokinetics are not sufficient to address the temporal changes in LR50 values. Thus, the data were fit to a Damage Assessment Model that also accounts for toxicodynamic processes. This analysis provides estimates of the incipient lethal residues for H. azteca, C. tentans, and Diporeia: 0.84, 0.21, and 3.00 micromol x g(-1), respectively. When comparing the relative sensitivity among species using lethal body residues, special attention should be given to ensure that comparisons are made at a common point in relation to exposure duration (i.e., time to steady state, Tss). When the LR50(lipid) values among the three species were compared at steady state, C. tentans is more sensitive than H. azteca and Diporeia spp.; however, there are no significant differences between the amphipod species. The greater sensitivity of C. tentans to fluoranthene as compared to the amphipods may be due, in part, to a potential toxic metabolite.[1]


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