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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Abnormal circulating levels of metalloprotease 9 and its tissue inhibitor 1 in angiographically proven peripheral arterial disease: relationship to disease severity.

BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with adaptive changes in the vascular and muscle extracellular matrix ( ECM) in response to reduced blood flow. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs), are key modulators of ECM turnover. We hypothesized that patients with intermittent claudication (with low ankle-brachial blood pressure index, <0.8), and critical ischaemia would have raised circulating levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 compared with healthy controls, reflecting an increase in proteolytic activity which may be related to ECM turnover in PAD. METHODS: We studied 36 patients (23 males; 65 +/- 9 years) with intermittent claudication and 43 (25 males; 68 +/- 12) patients with critical ischaemia. All patients had angiographic evidence confirming significant PAD. RESULTS: Circulating levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were higher (both P < 0.0001) in the PAD patient groups compared with the controls. Patients with critical ischaemia had MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels that were significantly higher than those with intermittent claudication. There were no differences in circulating TIMP-2 levels between patients and controls. There was a modest positive correlation between the white cell count (WCC) and MMP-9, both patients with intermittent claudication (Spearman, r = 0.398, P = 0.016) and critical ischaemia (r = 0.378, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate higher levels of circulating MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in patients with intermittent claudication and critical ischaemia. Circulating concentrations of both markers can be related to disease severity, being higher in critical ischaemia compared with levels in intermittent claudication.[1]


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