The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The spectrum of retinal phenotypes caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene.

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies on the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter ( ABCA4) gene have focussed on molecular genetic analysis; comparatively few studies have described the clinical aspects of ABCA4-associated retinal disorders. In this study, we demonstrate the spectrum of retinal dystrophies associated with ABCA4 gene mutations. METHODS: Nine well-documented patients representing distinct phenotypes in the continuum of ABCA4-related disorders were selected. All patients received an extensive ophthalmologic evaluation, including kinetic perimetry, fluorescein angiography, and electroretinography (ERG). Mutation analysis had been performed previously with the genotyping microarray (ABCR400 chip) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in combination with direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: In all patients, at least one pathologic ABCA4 mutation was identified. Patient 10034 represented the mild end of the phenotypic spectrum, demonstrating exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patient 24481 received the diagnosis of late-onset fundus flavimaculatus (FFM), patient 15168 demonstrated the typical FFM phenotype, and patient 19504 had autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). Patients 11302 and 7608 exhibited progression from FFM/STGD1 to cone-rod dystrophy ( CRD). A more typical CRD phenotype was found in patients 15680 and 12608. Finally, the most severe ABCA4- associated phenotype was retinitis pigmentosa ( RP) in patient 11366. This phenotype was characterised by extensive atrophy with almost complete loss of peripheral and central retinal functions. CONCLUSION: We describe nine patients during different stages of disease progression; together, these patients form a continuum of ABCA4-associated phenotypes. Besides characteristic disorders such as FFM/STGD1, CRD and RP, intermediate phenotypes may be encountered. Moreover, as the disease progresses, marked differences may be observed between initially comparable phenotypes. In contrast, distinctly different phenotypes may converge to a similar final stage, characterised by extensive chorioretinal atrophy and very low visual functions. The identified ABCA4 mutations in most, but not all, patients were compatible with the resulting phenotypes, as predicted by the genotype-phenotype model for ABCA4-associated disorders. With the advent of therapeutic options, recognition by the general ophthalmologist of the various retinal phenotypes associated with ABCA4 mutations is becoming increasingly important.[1]


  1. The spectrum of retinal phenotypes caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. Klevering, B.J., Deutman, A.F., Maugeri, A., Cremers, F.P., Hoyng, C.B. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities