The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Superantigen recognition by HLA class II on monocytes up-regulates toll-like receptor 4 and enhances proinflammatory responses to endotoxin.

The devastating systemic effects of bacterial superantigens may be explained by powerful proinflammatory synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear and has never been investigated in humans. Specifically, there is no known link between superantigen-induced immune effects and the pattern recognition of LPS at toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Here we show that bacterial superantigens induce rapid transcription and increased membrane expression of TLR4 in primary human monocytes by ligation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. We also demonstrate that superantigens are solely responsible for monocyte TLR4 up-regulation induced by products from Gram-positive bacteria. In parallel with enhanced TLR4 expression, priming of purified monocytes or mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells with superantigens significantly enhanced the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by known TLR4 ligands. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A constructs containing targeted mutations were used to demonstrate a requirement for MHC class II ligation in both TLR4 up-regulation and enhanced responses to endotoxin. In contrast to results from animal models, superantigen-endotoxin interaction was not dependent on T-cell receptor ligation by superantigen or interferon gamma production. Pattern recognition of bacterial superantigens by MHC class II receptors may exacerbate the proinflammatory response of monocytes to Gram-negative infection or endotoxin by up-regulation of TLR4.[1]

References

  1. Superantigen recognition by HLA class II on monocytes up-regulates toll-like receptor 4 and enhances proinflammatory responses to endotoxin. Hopkins, P.A., Fraser, J.D., Pridmore, A.C., Russell, H.H., Read, R.C., Sriskandan, S. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
 
WikiGenes - Universities