The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Decreased expression of Apaf-1 with progression of melanoma.

Defects in apoptotic system may contribute in the pathogenesis and resistance of malignant melanoma cells to chemotherapy. Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) is a cell death effector that acts with cytochrome c and caspase-9 to mediate apoptosis. Recently it was shown that metastatic melanomas often lose Apaf-1 and are concomitantly resistant to apoptosis. It is not known, however, whether Apaf-1 protein is lost during melanoma progression from localized to metastatic tumor. To this end, we evaluated Apaf-1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 10 cases of human nevi, 11 melanomas in situ, 26 primary melanomas and 15 metastases. Significant decreases in Apaf-1 expression was observed when comparing nevi and melanomas (chi-square = 33.719; P < 0.0001). Moreover, primary melanomas with greater tumor thickness showed lesser expression of Apaf-1 (chi-square = 16.182; P < 0.003). Intriguingly, we were unable to detect Apaf-1 expression in lesions of metastatic melanomas. These data demonstrated that there is an inverse correlation between Apaf-1 expression and pathologic stage of melanoma. This suggests that the decreased expression of Apaf-1 seen in correlation with melanoma progression renders melanoma more resistant to chemotherapy.[1]


  1. Decreased expression of Apaf-1 with progression of melanoma. Mustika, R., Budiyanto, A., Nishigori, C., Ichihashi, M., Ueda, M. Pigment Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities