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Gene Review

CYCS  -  cytochrome c, somatic

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CYC, Cytochrome c, HCS, THC4
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Disease relevance of CYCS


Psychiatry related information on CYCS

  • The cortical and intracellular localisation of cytochrome c immunoreactivity was examined in Alzheimer's disease and control cases [6].
  • In contrast, there was no relationship between either beta-myosin heavy chain or cytochrome C oxidase expression and locomotor activity [7].
  • Preemptive antiviral therapy was initiated after the second positive PCR result in all patients, as previously reported, and HCS was not considered for clinical decision making [8].
  • To reveal brain regions most significantly related to individual differences in exploratory behaviour, oxidative metabolism was measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in 2 months old Wistar rats with persistently high (HE) or low (LE) exploratory activity in a novel environment [9].
  • Since no structural modification occurs in the spermatozoon of Acrosternum aseadum after copulation, we used cytochemical studies to show the enzymatic activities variations of acid phosphatase, thiamine pyrophosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and cytochrome C oxidase, when the spermatozoon passes through the spermatheca [10].

High impact information on CYCS


Chemical compound and disease context of CYCS


Biological context of CYCS


Anatomical context of CYCS


Associations of CYCS with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CYCS

  • Our data suggest that Ca(2+) inhibits caspase activation during Ca(2+)-mediated neuron death by triggering the degradation of the cytochrome c-binding protein APAF-1 [29].
  • Mutant and wild-type alpha-synuclein interact with mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase [30].
  • Contrary to predictions of recent theoretical analysis, 1H NMR spectroscopy indicates that there is no major movement of cytochrome c residue Phe82 on binding to cytochrome b5 [31].
  • Furthermore, the time course of cytochrome c peptide and clathrin binding to hsc70 suggested that rather than binding to polymerized hsc70, they monomerized it by reducing free monomer, thereby shifting the monomer-polymer equilibrium toward monomer [32].
  • No ternary complexes with Anabaena flavodoxin or horse heart cytochrome c were formed, suggesting that the binding site on the enzyme is the same for ferredoxin and flavodoxin and that ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and cytochrome c bind at a common site on ferredoxin [33].

Enzymatic interactions of CYCS


Regulatory relationships of CYCS


Other interactions of CYCS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CYCS


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  2. Defective cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation in ovarian cancer cell lines due to diminished or absent apoptotic protease activating factor-1 activity. Wolf, B.B., Schuler, M., Li, W., Eggers-Sedlet, B., Lee, W., Tailor, P., Fitzgerald, P., Mills, G.B., Green, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  7. Heart failure in rats causes changes in skeletal muscle morphology and gene expression that are not explained by reduced activity. Simonini, A., Long, C.S., Dudley, G.A., Yue, P., McElhinny, J., Massie, B.M. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  10. Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies of the spermatozoa of Acrosternum aseadum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) after copulation. Fernandes, A.P., Báo, S.N. J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Intracellular nucleotides act as critical prosurvival factors by binding to cytochrome C and inhibiting apoptosome. Chandra, D., Bratton, S.B., Person, M.D., Tian, Y., Martin, A.G., Ayres, M., Fearnhead, H.O., Gandhi, V., Tang, D.G. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
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  15. A fused mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility is developmentally regulated. Young, E.G., Hanson, M.R. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional roles of the heme architecture and its environment in tetraheme cytochrome C. Akutsu, H., Takayama, Y. Acc. Chem. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. A pharmacologic target of G3139 in melanoma cells may be the mitochondrial VDAC. Lai, J.C., Tan, W., Benimetskaya, L., Miller, P., Colombini, M., Stein, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Caspase-3 is essential for procaspase-9 processing and cisplatin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Blanc, C., Deveraux, Q.L., Krajewski, S., Jänicke, R.U., Porter, A.G., Reed, J.C., Jaggi, R., Marti, A. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  20. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel antagonists suppress the release of cytochrome c and the expression of procaspase-3 in rat hippocampus after global brain ischemia. Zhang, C., Shen, W., Zhang, G. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Monomorphism of human cytochrome c. Bertini, I., Grassi, E., Luchinat, C., Quattrone, A., Saccenti, E. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutations of the Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c-Type Synthase in X-Linked Dominant Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome. Wimplinger, I., Morleo, M., Rosenberger, G., Iaconis, D., Orth, U., Meinecke, P., Lerer, I., Ballabio, A., Gal, A., Franco, B., Kutsche, K. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  24. Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked. Yang, J., Liu, X., Bhalla, K., Kim, C.N., Ibrado, A.M., Cai, J., Peng, T.I., Jones, D.P., Wang, X. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
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  26. Cloning and characterization of a novel human dual flavin reductase. Paine, M.J., Garner, A.P., Powell, D., Sibbald, J., Sales, M., Pratt, N., Smith, T., Tew, D.G., Wolf, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of PUMA-alpha by p53 in cisplatin-induced renal cell apoptosis. Jiang, M., Wei, Q., Wang, J., Du, Q., Yu, J., Zhang, L., Dong, Z. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Cupric nitrilotriacetate-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells association with lipid peroxidation, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria, and activation of caspase-3. Ma, Y., Ogino, T., Kawabata, T., Li, J., Eguchi, K., Okada, S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Ca(2+)-induced inhibition of apoptosis in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: degradation of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1). Reimertz, C., Kögel, D., Lankiewicz, S., Poppe, M., Prehn, J.H. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Mutant and wild-type alpha-synuclein interact with mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase. Elkon, H., Don, J., Melamed, E., Ziv, I., Shirvan, A., Offen, D. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. NMR characterization of surface interactions in the cytochrome b5-cytochrome c complex. Burch, A.M., Rigby, S.E., Funk, W.D., MacGillivray, R.T., Mauk, M.R., Mauk, A.G., Moore, G.R. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of constitutive 70-kDa heat shock protein polymerization on its interaction with protein substrate. Gao, B., Eisenberg, E., Greene, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Complex formation between ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from Anabaena PCC 7119: cross-linking studies. Pueyo, J.J., Revilla, C., Mayhew, S.G., Gómez-Moreno, C. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  36. pH Profile of cytochrome c-catalyzed tyrosine nitration. Kambayashi, Y., Hitomi, Y., Kodama, N., Kubo, M., Okuda, J., Takemoto, K., Shibamori, M., Takigawa, T., Ogino, K. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  44. Galectin-3 translocates to the perinuclear membranes and inhibits cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. A role for synexin in galectin-3 translocation. Yu, F., Finley, R.L., Raz, A., Kim, H.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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