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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lolium rigidum, a pool of resistance mechanisms to ACCase inhibitor herbicides.

Three diclofop-methyl (DM) resistant biotypes of Lolium rigidum (R1, R2, and R3) were found in different winter wheat fields in Spain, continuously treated with DM, DM + chlortoluron, or DM + isoproturon. Herbicide rates that inhibited shoot growth by 50% (ED50) were determined for DM. There were found that the different biotypes exhibited different ranges of resistance to this herbicide; the resistant factors were 7.2, 13, and 36.6, respectively. DM absorption, metabolism, and effects on ACCase isoforms were examined in these biotypes of L. rigidum. The most highly resistant, biotype R3, contained an altered isoform of ACCase. In biotype R2, which exhibited a medium level of resistance, there was an increased rate of oxidation of the aryl ring of diclofop, a reaction most likely catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme. In the other biotype, R1, DM penetration was significantly less than that observed in the resistant (R2 and R3) and susceptible (S) biotypes. Analysis of the leaf cuticle surface by scanning electron microscopy showed a greater epicuticular wax density in the leaf cuticles of biotype R1 than in the other biotypes.[1]


  1. Lolium rigidum, a pool of resistance mechanisms to ACCase inhibitor herbicides. De Prado, J.L., Osuna, M.D., Heredia, A., De Prado, R. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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