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Disease relevance of Lolium

  • Nasal sensitivity to rye grass pollen allergens was evaluated by provocation testing in patients with hay fever due to grass pollen using measurements of nasal airways resistance (NAR), a reproducible system for delivery of allergen, and stringent criteria for allergen storage [1].
  • Tunicamycin belongs to a group of antibiotics which can cause severe a nd often fatal neurological malfunction in animals, commonly known as "annual ryegrass toxicity." At the cellular level, tunicamycin is a potent glycosylation inhibitor which is often used to elucidate the importance of glycosylation in protein functions [2].
  • The survival of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass was examined in laboratory silos with herbage prepared in one of three different ways; either untreated, inoculated with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum or by direct acidification with formic acid [3].
  • Fibrobacter succinogenes monocultures and cocultures with B. fibrisolvens D1 degraded 58-69% of ryegrass CW, solubilizing 67-78% of CW glucose, 65-71% of CW xylose, 69-75% of hemicellulose, and 68-77% of total CW monosaccharides [4].
  • Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) parasitised by Anguina agrostis and Corynebacterium rathayi causes neurological signs and brain lesions thought to be associated with a vasoconstrictor effect of the toxic grass [5].

Psychiatry related information on Lolium

  • The possibility that a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb 12) to Rye grass pollen allergen LolpIV and LolpIV-specific antibodies in the sera of grass allergic individuals share a common idiotope (Id) was investigated [6].

High impact information on Lolium

  • A major allergen of rye-grass pollen, Lol pIX, is located in intracellular starch granules within pollen grains [7].
  • Deletion of a second NADPH oxidase gene, noxB, had no effect on the E. festucae-perennial ryegrass symbiosis [8].
  • The transgenic ryegrass plants in which Lol p 5 gene expression is perturbed showed normal fertile pollen development, indicating that genetic engineering of hypoallergenic grass plants is possible [9].
  • In contrast, we were unable to detect rye grass tetramer-positive cells in cultures from HLA-DR*0401 nonallergic individuals, even after expansion with IL-2 [10].
  • Thus, our results suggest that rye grass allergen-specific T cells in DR*0401 nonallergic subjects are present at very low levels (e.g., because of deletion or suppression), differ in a fundamental way in their requirement for ex vivo expansion (e.g., they may be anergic), or use TCRs distinct from those of allergic individuals [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lolium


Biological context of Lolium


Anatomical context of Lolium


Associations of Lolium with chemical compounds

  • The membrane-bound beta-glucan synthase from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) endosperm cells has been solubilized by both non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents [20].
  • The beta-glucan synthase from Lolium multiflorum. Detergent solubilization, purification using monoclonal antibodies, and photoaffinity labeling with a novel photoreactive pyrimidine analogue of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose [20].
  • Associations between perennial ryegrass and an E. festucae mutant deleted for perA lack detectable levels of peramine [21].
  • Ryegrass antigen evoked mean rises in nasal blood flow of 30% to 100% after 10 and 30 minutes that were significant, relative to prechallenge levels and to levels after diluent challenge, both before and after EPA [22].
  • These results emphasize the importance of G-OXOs in H(2)O(2) production in oxalate-producing plant species such as ryegrass [23].

Gene context of Lolium

  • Rye grass extract, neither alone nor in combination with OSM, induced PGE(2) or NO production, although it did induce the release of GM-CSF [24].
  • RESULTS: After stimulation with HDM allergen, PBMCs from children sensitized only to HDM expressed increased mRNA levels of the Th2 cytokines, but not of IL-10 and IFN-gamma, whereas ryegrass stimulation did not result in increased cytokine expression [25].
  • We have therefore examined spontaneous, rye grass pollen-stimulated, and PHA-stimulated secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from atopic asthmatic, atopic non-asthmatic and normal controls in and out of the rye grass pollen season [26].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the cim 1 protein product, derived from the complete nucleotide sequence of a cim 1 cDNA, was 40% identical to that of a perennial rye grass pollen allergen cDNA (Lol Pl) [27].
  • Human rye grass allergen Lol p I-specific cloned CD4+ T helper cells of subtypes Th0, Th1, and Th2 were treated with immobilized anti-CD3 [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lolium


  1. Nasal challenge testing in grass pollen hay fever. Schumacher, M.J., Pain, M.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific toxicity of tunicamycin in induction of programmed cell death of sympathetic neurons. Chang, J.Y., Korolev, V.V. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass. Merry, R.J., Mawdsley, J.L., Brooks, A.E., Davies, D.R. J. Appl. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Digestion of cell-wall monosaccharides of ryegrass and alfalfa hays by the ruminal bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Miron, J., Ben-Ghedalia, D. Can. J. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatic damage in sheep fed annual ryegrass, Lolium rigidum, parasitised by Anguina agrostis and Corynebacterium rathayi. Berry, P.H., Richards, R.B., Howell, J.M., Cook, R.D. Res. Vet. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Human and murine antibodies to rye grass pollen allergen LolpIV share a common idiotope. Bose, R., Ekramoddoullah, A.K., Kisil, F.T., Sehon, A.H. Immunology (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanism of grass-pollen-induced asthma. Suphioglu, C., Singh, M.B., Taylor, P., Bellomo, R., Holmes, P., Puy, R., Knox, R.B. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Reactive oxygen species play a role in regulating a fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic interaction. Tanaka, A., Christensen, M.J., Takemoto, D., Park, P., Scott, B. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen. Bhalla, P.L., Swoboda, I., Singh, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Allergen-specific MHC class II tetramer+ cells are detectable in allergic, but not in nonallergic, individuals. Macaubas, C., Wahlstrom, J., Galvão da Silva, A.P., Forsthuber, T.G., Sønderstrup, G., Kwok, W.W., DeKruyff, R.H., Umetsu, D.T. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum of nursling rats given corynetoxin, the aetiological agent of annual ryegrass toxicity. Finnie, J.W., Mukherjee, T.M. J. Comp. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of ovine annual ryegrass toxicity with chlordiazepoxide: a field evaluation. Norris, R.T., Richards, I.S., Petterson, D.S. Aust. Vet. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II. Ansari, A.A., Shenbagamurthi, P., Marsh, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Hydrolysis of ribonucleoside 3'-diphosphates by rye grass 3'-nucleotidase. Hecht, S.M., Hawrelak, S.D. Biochemistry (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Vernalization response in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) involves orthologues of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) VRN1 and rice (Oryza sativa) Hd1. Andersen, J.R., Jensen, L.B., Asp, T., Lübberstedt, T. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of corynetoxin isolated from parasitized annual ryegrass on albumin and transferrin synthesis and secretion by cultured fetal rat hepatocytes. Yeoh, G.C., Vogel, P., Daly, J., Brighton, V.J., Light, A., Petterson, D.S. Exp. Cell Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of human serum complement with allergens. I. Generation of C3a, C4a, and C5a and induction of human neutrophil aggregation. Nagata, S., Glovsky, M.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Mapping of T cell epitopes of the major fraction of rye grass using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopics and non-atopics. II. Isoallergen clone 5A of Lolium perenne group I (Lol p I). Bungy, G.A., Rodda, S., Roitt, I., Brostoff, J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Biosynthesis of arabinogalactan-protein in Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) endosperm cells. Subcellular distribution of galactosyltransferases. Schibeci, A., Pnjak, A., Fincher, G.B. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. The beta-glucan synthase from Lolium multiflorum. Detergent solubilization, purification using monoclonal antibodies, and photoaffinity labeling with a novel photoreactive pyrimidine analogue of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose. Meikle, P.J., Ng, K.F., Johnson, E., Hoogenraad, N.J., Stone, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. A symbiosis expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from a mutualistic fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass confers protection to the symbiotum from insect herbivory. Tanaka, A., Tapper, B.A., Popay, A., Parker, E.J., Scott, B. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Suppression by ingested eicosapentaenoic acid of the increases in nasal mucosal blood flow and eosinophilia of ryegrass-allergic reactions. Rangi, S.P., Serwonska, M.H., Lenahan, G.A., Pickett, W.C., Blake, V.A., Sample, S., Goetzl, E.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Oxidative burst and expression of germin/oxo genes during wounding of ryegrass leaf blades: comparison with senescence of leaf sheaths. Le Deunff, E., Davoine, C., Le Dantec, C., Billard, J.P., Huault, C. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Oncostatin M synergises with house dust mite proteases to induce the production of PGE(2) from cultured lung epithelial cells. Knight, D.A., Asokananthan, N., Watkins, D.N., Misso, N.L., Thompson, P.J., Stewart, G.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. "Bystander" amplification of PBMC cytokine responses to seasonal allergen in polysensitized atopic children. Rudin, A., Macaubas, C., Wee, C., Holt, B.J., Slya, P.D., Holt, P.G. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Seasonal comparison of cytokine profiles in atopic asthmatics and atopic non-asthmatics. Tang, C., Rolland, I.M., Ward, C., Bish, R., Thien, F., Walters, E.H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Cytokinin regulation of a soybean pollen allergen gene. Crowell, D.N. Plant Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Anti-CD3-induced anergy in cloned human Th0, Th1, and Th2 cells. Nguyen, D.D., Beck, L., Spiegelberg, H.L. Cell. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II. Sidoli, A., Tamborini, E., Giuntini, I., Levi, S., Volonté, G., Paini, C., De Lalla, C., Siccardi, A.G., Baralle, F.E., Galliani, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass. Broadwater, A.H., Rubinstein, A.L., Chay, C.H., Klapper, D.G., Bedinger, P.A. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Rapid purification of the main allergen of Lolium perenne by high-performance liquid chromatography. Brieva, A., Rubio, N. J. Chromatogr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. A microtitre plate radioimmunoassay for the detection and semiquantitation of housedust mite, rye grass pollen and cow's milk specific IgG antibodies. Mahoney, G.N., Hartley, W.A., Taylor, B. J. Immunol. Methods (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Specificity of ELISA for IgG subclass antibodies against inhalant antigens in early childhood. Ruiz, R.G., Price, J.F., Kemeny, D.M. Allergy (1994) [Pubmed]
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