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Chemical Compound Review

Highuron     3-(3-chloro-4-methyl-phenyl)- 1,1-dimethyl...

Synonyms: Syncuran, Clortokem, Dicuran, Dikurin, Tolurex, ...
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Disease relevance of Dicuran

  • Further, it is shown that the transformed Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain BD413 can grow on pollutants unlike control bacteria not expressing cytochrome P450 and that was reflected in release of radiolabel with growth on radiolabelled chlortoluron [1].
  • Our results on the bacterial strains Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 show that Dicuran does not possess either mutagenic or premutagenic characteristics [2].

High impact information on Dicuran


Biological context of Dicuran

  • Degradation of chlortoluron in water disinfection processes: a kinetic study [8].
  • The higher level of polar functionalities, such as ether and ester moieties, in the lipid fraction from the freshwater-irrigated soil suggests that these extractable compounds compete successfully with the polar solutes (atrazine and chlorotoluron) for specific binding sites in the soil organic matter (SOM) [9].
  • The transgenic plants expressing the CYP1A2 fused enzyme metabolized chlortoluron to a larger extent to its non-phytotoxic metabolites through N-demethylation and ring-methyl hydroxylation as compared to the plants expressing the CYP1A1 fused enzyme [10].

Associations of Dicuran with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dicuran


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dicuran

  • The ELISA technique for chlortoluron developed and described here proved to be rapid, sensitive and specific, fulfilling the needs of present legislation relating to the use and levels of pesticides in the environment [7].
  • Development and evaluation of a chemiluminescent immunoassay for chlortoluron using a camera luminometer [6].
  • Method for determining trace quantities of the herbicide chlortoluron in soils by liquid chromatography [14].
  • This luminescent assay has shown considerable potential by providing a rapid, simple and portable means of monitoring multiple water samples for the presence of chlortoluron [6].


  1. Engineering of heterologous cytochrome P450 in Acinetobacter sp.: application for pollutant degradation. Lamb, D.C., Kelly, D.E., Masaphy, S., Jones, G.L., Kelly, S.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-inhibitory potential of Dicuran on procaryotic and eucaryotic test systems. Ramljak, S., Hackenberger, B.K., Smital, T., Britvić, S. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of a soybean cytochrome P450 monooxygenase cDNA in yeast and tobacco enhances the metabolism of phenylurea herbicides. Siminszky, B., Corbin, F.T., Ward, E.R., Fleischmann, T.J., Dewey, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Engineering herbicide metabolism in tobacco and Arabidopsis with CYP76B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Jerusalem artichoke. Didierjean, L., Gondet, L., Perkins, R., Lau, S.M., Schaller, H., O'Keefe, D.P., Werck-Reichhart, D. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Photocatalytic degradation of phenyl-urea herbicides chlortoluron and chloroxuron: characterization of the by-products by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Amorisco, A., Losito, I., Carbonara, T., Palmisano, F., Zambonin, P.G. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Development and evaluation of a chemiluminescent immunoassay for chlortoluron using a camera luminometer. Katmeh, M.F., Aherne, G.W., Stevenson, D. The Analyst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of the phenylurea herbicide chlortoluron in water and biological fluids. Katmeh, M.F., Aherne, G.W., Stevenson, D. The Analyst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Degradation of chlortoluron in water disinfection processes: a kinetic study. Losito, I., Zambonin, C.G., Palmisano, F. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of lipids on sorption characteristics of freshwater- and wastewater-irrigated soils. Drori, Y., Lam, B., Simpson, A., Aizenshtat, Z., Chefetz, B. J. Environ. Qual. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of human cytochromes P450 1A1 and P450 1A2 as fused enzymes with yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in transgenic tobacco plants. Shiota, N., Kodama, S., Inui, H., Ohkawa, H. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Metabolism of the herbicide chlortoluron by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Mehmood, Z., Kelly, D.E., Kelly, S.L. Chemosphere (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative investigation of antipyrine half-life and induction of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases in rats treated with phenylurea herbicides. Schoket, B., Zilahy, Z., Molnar, J., Vincze, I. In Vivo (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Evaluation of simplifying assumptions on pesticide degradation in soil. Beulke, S., van Beinum, W., Brown, C.D., Mitchell, M., Walker, A. J. Environ. Qual. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Method for determining trace quantities of the herbicide chlortoluron in soils by liquid chromatography. Smith, A.E., Lord, K.A. J. Chromatogr. (1975) [Pubmed]
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