The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The face of pain--a pilot study to validate the measurement of facial pain expression with an improved electromyogram method.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the validity of an improved facial electromyogram (EMG) method for the measurement of facial pain expression. BACKGROUND: Darwin defined pain in connection with fear as a simultaneous occurrence of eye staring, brow contraction and teeth chattering. Prkachin was the first to use the video-based Facial Action Coding System to measure facial expressions while using four different types of pain triggers, identifying a group of facial muscles around the eyes. METHOD: The activity of nine facial muscles in 10 healthy male subjects was analyzed. Pain was induced through a laser system with a randomized sequence of different intensities. Muscle activity was measured with a new, highly sensitive and selective facial EMG. RESULTS: The results indicate two groups of muscles as key for pain expression. These results are in concordance with Darwin's definition. As in Prkachin's findings, one muscle group is assembled around the orbicularis oculi muscle, initiating eye staring. The second group consists of the mentalis and depressor anguli oris muscles, which trigger mouth movements. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the validity of the facial EMG method for measuring facial pain expression. Further studies with psychometric measurements, a larger sample size and a female test group should be conducted.[1]


  1. The face of pain--a pilot study to validate the measurement of facial pain expression with an improved electromyogram method. Wolf, K., Raedler, T., Henke, K., Kiefer, F., Mass, R., Quante, M., Wiedemann, K. Pain research & management : the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la société canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities