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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Isolation of five types of flavonol from seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and induction of apoptosis by some of the flavonols in human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells.

Five types of flavonol were isolated from seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and identified by mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The proliferations of human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells were inhibited as the concentrations of these flavonols were increased. The order of the extent of growth inhibition by the flavonols at a concentration of 20 microM is as follows: pentamethylquercetin > syringetin > isorhamnetin > quercetin > kaempherol > myricetin. Apoptotic morphological changes of the nucleus, including chromatin condensation were induced in the HL-60 cells treated with quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, but not in the cells treated with the other flavonols. The fragmentations of DNA by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, a characteristic of apoptosis, were observed to be dose-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, results from the induction of apoptosis by these flavonols. The other flavonols (pentamethylquercetin, syringetin and isorhamnetin) having methoxy (-OCH3) group inhibited more strongly than the above 3 flavonols without induction of apoptosis in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that mechanisms of growth inhibition by pentamethylquercetin, syringetin and isorhamnetin are different from the apoptosis caused by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin.[1]


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