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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chemical indicators of heat treatment in fortified and special milks.

Carbohydrate and furosine contents in 12 commercial fortified and special milk samples (pasteurized goat's and ewe's milks; ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) goat's milk, UHT milks fortified with calcium, magnesium, fiber, or royal jelly and honey; and lactose-hydrolyzed milks) were analyzed. Except for lactose-hydrolyzed milks, furosine, lactose, lactulose, galactose, glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and myo-inositol contents were similar to the previously reported values for UHT or pasteurized milk samples. In lactose-hydrolyzed milks, lactulose was not detectable and lactose was present in low amount; high levels of glucose, galactose, fructose, tagatose, and furosine were also detected in this type of milk. Results found in commercial milks were compared to those obtained in laboratory-prepared UHT milks with lactose hydrolyzed prior to heating. Hydrolysis of lactose before thermal treatments promoted elevated accumulation of reducing sugars (galactose and glucose) that could be partially converted to the corresponding isomers (tagatose and fructose) during heating. In addition, the reducing sugars could also react with the amino groups of proteins, giving rise to the corresponding Amadori compound. According to the obtained results, heating prior to hydrolysis of lactose is suggested to avoid a considerable loss of available lysine.[1]


  1. Chemical indicators of heat treatment in fortified and special milks. Mendoza, M.R., Olano, A., Villamiel, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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