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Chemical Compound Review

lactose     2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[4,5,6- trihydroxy-2...

Synonyms: maltose, cellobiose, D-Maltose, D-Cellobiose, D(+)Cellobiose, ...
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Disease relevance of cellobiose

  • Correlation of competence for export with lack of tertiary structure of the mature species: a study in vivo of maltose-binding protein in E. coli [1].
  • Recurrent abdominal pain of childhood due to lactose intolerance [2].
  • We studied the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of disease associated with a rare, unnamed halophilic lactose-fermenting Vibrio species in 39 persons from whom the organism had been isolated [3].
  • Lactose, known to block the binding site on the ricin B subunit, protected ricin from NAI modification of binding or toxicity [4].
  • Ingestion of a large dose of the milk sugar lactose--for example, the 50-g load in 1 liter of milk--causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and flatulence in the majority of people with lactose malabsorption [5].

Psychiatry related information on cellobiose

  • This study suggests that individual differences in susceptibility to diarrhea after milk ingestion by lactase-deficient subjects may be due to differences in the quantity of lactose not absorbed and/or differences in the rate of bacterial metabolism of lactose in the colon [6].
  • Age, regularity of meals, and the amount of physical activity were not associated with either subjective lactose intolerance or IBS [7].
  • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was administered to 19 LNP subjects self-described as markedly lactose intolerant (S-LNP), 13 LNP subjects who denied lactose intolerance (A-LNP), and 10 lactase-persistent individuals who believed they were lactose intolerant (S-LP) [8].
  • The P. sordida CDH-based lactose biosensor, proved to be the better one, has a detection limit for lactose of 1 microM, a sensitivity of 1100 microA x mM(-1) x cm(-2), a response time of 4 s (the time required to obtain the maximum peak current), and a linear range from 1 to 100 microM lactose (correlation coefficient 0.998) [9].
  • Neither did they find significant associations in analyses stratified by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, or lactose intake [10].

High impact information on cellobiose


Chemical compound and disease context of cellobiose


Biological context of cellobiose

  • Acid maltase (pH 4.0), a lysosomal enzyme, was undetectable in either cultured or biopsied muscle by maltose hydrolysis, whereas acid phosphatase, also a lysosomal enzyme, was increased in both sources of muscle cells [20].
  • Intragenic suppressor mutations that restore export of maltose binding protein with a truncated signal peptide [21].
  • A correlation between competence for export and lack of stable tertiary structure was established by comparing the kinetics of folding of mutated precursor maltose-binding protein that carries a defective leader peptide with the kinetics of folding of wild-type precursor that is competent for export [1].
  • We have used here an exact theoretical approach to calculated melting curves of four DNA restriction fragments of 95-301 base pairs containing the lactose promoter region (Fig. 1). Theoretical curves agree very well with the experimental transitions published by Hardies et al. and obtained in this laboratory [22].
  • Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a beta-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery in an animal model of lactose intolerance [23].

Anatomical context of cellobiose


Associations of cellobiose with other chemical compounds

  • METHODS: Healthy volunteers were studied after oral administration of 20 g lactulose (n = 6) and intracolonic infusions of 20 g lactose (n = 7) and SCFAs (54 mmol/180 mL and 90 mmol/180 mL, respectively) [29].
  • Thus, a substantial fraction of dietary lactose in premature infants may be converted to acetic acid; this conversion could have a significant effect on protein as well as energy requirements [30].
  • The quantity of lactose not absorbed by 4 normal and 6 lactase-deficient subjects was determined by three indirect methods which involved: (1) measurement of pulmonary hydrogen (H2) excretion, (2) pulmonary (14)CO2 excretion, and (3) stool (14)C excretion, after ingestion of 12.5 g of 1-(14)C-lactose and 4 g of polyethylene glycol (PEG) [6].
  • Although they did not develop diarrhea, GC-C-sufficient and -deficient mice on the lactose diet responded with elevated levels of guanylin and uroguanylin RNA and protein [31].
  • Analysis of the sucrose uptake process in yeast strains transformed with this plasmid show a pH-dependent uptake of sucrose with a Km of 1.5 mM, which can be inhibited by maltose, alpha-phenylglucoside, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [32].
  • We show that DPE2 transfers the non-reducing glucosyl unit from maltose to glycogen by a ping-pong mechanism [33].

Gene context of cellobiose

  • From maltose-negative mutants of the two categories, we isolated suppressor mutations within malK that restore transport [34].
  • Maltose-negative mutants fall into two categories with respect to the cellular localization of the MalK ATPase: in the first, MalK is membrane-bound, as in wild-type strains, while in the second, it is cytosolic, as in strains deleted in the malF and malG genes [34].
  • Thus, regulation of ho-1 involves a direct sensing of heme levels by Bach1 (by analogy to lac repressor sensitivity to lactose), generating a simple feedback loop whereby the substrate effects repressor-activator antagonism [35].
  • Using epitope tags, antibodies and maltose-binding protein markers, we find that the helical domains of Sso, Snc and both halves of Sec9 are all aligned in parallel within the SNARE complex, suggesting that the yeast exocytic SNARE complex consists of a parallel four helix bundle [36].
  • We present evidence for a nucleotide-binding site on one of the membrane components from each of three independent transport systems, the hisP, malK and oppD proteins of the histidine, maltose and oligopeptide permeases, respectively [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cellobiose


  1. Correlation of competence for export with lack of tertiary structure of the mature species: a study in vivo of maltose-binding protein in E. coli. Randall, L.L., Hardy, S.J. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Recurrent abdominal pain of childhood due to lactose intolerance. Barr, R.G., Levine, M.D., Watkins, J.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Disease caused by a marine Vibrio. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology. Blake, P.A., Merson, M.H., Weaver, R.E., Hollis, D.G., Heublein, P.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Studies on the galactose-binding site of ricin and the hybrid toxin Man6P-ricin. Youle, R.J., Murray, G.J., Neville, D.M. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. A comparison of symptoms after the consumption of milk or lactose-hydrolyzed milk by people with self-reported severe lactose intolerance. Suarez, F.L., Savaiano, D.A., Levitt, M.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Quantitative measurement of lactose absorption. Bond, J.H., Levitt, M.D. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of irritable bowel syndrome in subjective lactose intolerance. Vesa, T.H., Seppo, L.M., Marteau, P.R., Sahi, T., Korpela, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Tolerance to the daily ingestion of two cups of milk by individuals claiming lactose intolerance. Suarez, F.L., Savaiano, D., Arbisi, P., Levitt, M.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Third-generation biosensor for lactose based on newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenase. Stoica, L., Ludwig, R., Haltrich, D., Gorton, L. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Folate intake and risk of Parkinson's disease. Chen, H., Zhang, S.M., Schwarzschild, M.A., Hernán, M.A., Logroscino, G., Willett, W.C., Ascherio, A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Enattah, N.S., Sahi, T., Savilahti, E., Terwilliger, J.D., Peltonen, L., Järvelä, I. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure and conformational changes in NSF and its membrane receptor complexes visualized by quick-freeze/deep-etch electron microscopy. Hanson, P.I., Roth, R., Morisaki, H., Jahn, R., Heuser, J.E. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Bipolar localization of the replication origin regions of chromosomes in vegetative and sporulating cells of B. subtilis. Webb, C.D., Teleman, A., Gordon, S., Straight, A., Belmont, A., Lin, D.C., Grossman, A.D., Wright, A., Losick, R. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. A new mechanism for coactivation of transcription initiation: repositioning of an activator triggered by the binding of a second activator. Richet, E., Vidal-Ingigliardi, D., Raibaud, O. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. E. coli 4.5S RNA is part of a ribonucleoprotein particle that has properties related to signal recognition particle. Ribes, V., Römisch, K., Giner, A., Dobberstein, B., Tollervey, D. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. On the action of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein complex at the Escherichia coli lactose and galactose promoter regions. Spassky, A., Busby, S., Buc, H. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystal structure of MalK, the ATPase subunit of the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter of the archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Diederichs, K., Diez, J., Greller, G., Müller, C., Breed, J., Schnell, C., Vonrhein, C., Boos, W., Welte, W. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and nucleotide sequencing of lactose carrier mutants that transport maltose. Brooker, R.J., Wilson, T.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. High-level expression and deletion mutagenesis of human tryptophan hydroxylase. Yang, X.J., Kaufman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Adult-onset acid maltase deficiency. Morphologic and biochemical abnormalities reproduced in in cultured muscle. Askanas, V., Engel, W.K., DiMauro, S., Brooks, B.R., Mehler, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Intragenic suppressor mutations that restore export of maltose binding protein with a truncated signal peptide. Bankaitis, V.A., Rasmussen, B.A., Bassford, P.J. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Theory agrees with experimental thermal denaturation of short DNA restriction fragments. Benight, A.S., Wartell, R.M., Howell, D.K. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector. During, M.J., Xu, R., Young, D., Kaplitt, M.G., Sherwin, R.S., Leone, P. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of the mature protein sequence of maltose-binding protein in its secretion across the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. Ito, K., Beckwith, J.R. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Protein patterns of brush-border fragments in congenital lactose malabsorption and in specific hypolactasia of the adult. Freiburghaus, A.U., Schmitz, J., Schindler, M., Rotthauwe, H.W., Kuitunen, P., Launiala, K., Hadorn, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Epidermal growth factor-toxin A chain conjugates: EGF-ricin A is a potent toxin while EGF-diphtheria fragment A is nontoxic. Cawley, D.B., Herschman, H.R., Gilliland, D.G., Collier, R.J. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation. Demetriou, M., Granovsky, M., Quaggin, S., Dennis, J.W. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome. Zhou, Z., Licklider, L.J., Gygi, S.P., Reed, R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Colonic fermentation and proximal gastric tone in humans. Ropert, A., Cherbut, C., Rozé, C., Le Quellec, A., Holst, J.J., Fu-Cheng, X., Bruley des Varannes, S., Galmiche, J.P. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Stable isotope model for estimating colonic acetate production in premature infants. Kien, C.L., Kepner, J., Grotjohn, K., Ault, K., McClead, R.E. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Increases in guanylin and uroguanylin in a mouse model of osmotic diarrhea are guanylate cyclase C-independent. Steinbrecher, K.A., Mann, E.A., Giannella, R.A., Cohen, M.B. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Isolation and characterization of a sucrose carrier cDNA from spinach by functional expression in yeast. Riesmeier, J.W., Willmitzer, L., Frommer, W.B. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Domain characterization of a 4-alpha-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. Steichen, J.M., Petty, R.V., Sharkey, T.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  34. Subunit interactions in ABC transporters: a conserved sequence in hydrophobic membrane proteins of periplasmic permeases defines an important site of interaction with the ATPase subunits. Mourez, M., Hofnung, M., Dassa, E. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Hemoprotein Bach1 regulates enhancer availability of heme oxygenase-1 gene. Sun, J., Hoshino, H., Takaku, K., Nakajima, O., Muto, A., Suzuki, H., Tashiro, S., Takahashi, S., Shibahara, S., Alam, J., Taketo, M.M., Yamamoto, M., Igarashi, K. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Genetic and morphological analyses reveal a critical interaction between the C-termini of two SNARE proteins and a parallel four helical arrangement for the exocytic SNARE complex. Katz, L., Hanson, P.I., Heuser, J.E., Brennwald, P. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Nucleotide binding by membrane components of bacterial periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems. Higgins, C.F., Hiles, I.D., Whalley, K., Jamieson, D.J. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Lactose binding to heat-labile enterotoxin revealed by X-ray crystallography. Sixma, T.K., Pronk, S.E., Kalk, K.H., van Zanten, B.A., Berghuis, A.M., Hol, W.G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Relative lactose intolerance. A clinical study of tube-fed patients. Walike, B.C., Walike, J.W. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Malnutrition and carbohydrate malabsorption in children with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection. Miller, T.L., Orav, E.J., Martin, S.R., Cooper, E.R., McIntosh, K., Winter, H.S. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
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