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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of a myeloma patient with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis: presence of a lambda dimer protein inhibiting shear-induced platelet aggregation by binding to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor.

We have identified a patient with IgD lambda-type multiple myeloma who was characterized by a severe bleeding tendency, especially after puncture of arterial vessels. Both the bleeding time (>25 min) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were prolonged. To clarify the underlying pathogenesis, we purified the APTT-prolonging activity from the patient's serum. The purified protein was a highly negatively-charged homodimer of the lambda light chain. The lambda dimer protein (M-protein) inhibited ristocetinand high shear-induced platelet aggregation, dependent on platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha), but not epinephrine-, collagen-, ADP-, thrombin-, or botrocetin-induced platelet aggregation. The lambda dimer protein inhibited the binding of platelets to immobilized or ristocetin-treated von Willebrand factor (VWF). Furthermore, a 39/34 kD fragment of VWF encompassing the A1 domain specifically bound to the immobilized lambda dimer protein in the presence of ristocetin, suggesting that the lambda dimer protein directly binds to the A1 domain of VWF. To help elucidate the binding site within the A1 domain, binding of ristocetin-treated VWF to the immobilized lambda dimer protein was assayed in the presence of various anti-A1 domain monoclonal antibodies. Based on these data, we conclude that the lambda dimer protein binds to the region of the A1 domain composed of helices alpha3 and alpha4 and thus interferes with VWF-GPIbalpha interaction. The existence of a protein that inhibits high shear-induced platelet aggregation in acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) has only rarely been reported. The results suggest that the hemostatic function in arteries with high shear force is profoundly disrupted if the binding of GPIbalpha to VWF is abrogated, supporting the relevance of shear-induced VWF interaction with GPIbalpha in the initiation of the hemostatic process.[1]


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