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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A recently identified member of the glutathione transferase structural family modifies cardiac RyR2 substate activity, coupled gating and activation by Ca2+ and ATP.

The recently discovered CLIC-2 protein (where CLIC stands for chloride intracellular channel), which belongs to the ubiquitous glutathione transferase structural family and is expressed in the myocardium, is a regulator of native cardiac RyR2 (ryanodine receptor 2) channels. Here we show that recombinant CLIC-2 increases [3H]ryanodine binding to native and purified RyR channels, enhances substate activity in individual channels, increases the number of rare coupled gating events between associated RyRs, and reduces activation of the channels by their primary endogenous cytoplasmic ligands, ATP and Ca2+. CLIC-2 (0.2-10 microM) added to the cytoplasmic side of RyR2 channels in lipid bilayers depressed activity in a reversible, voltage-independent, manner in the presence of activating (10-100 microM) or sub-activating (100 nM) cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Although the number of channel openings to all levels was reduced, the fraction and duration of openings to substate levels were increased after exposure to CLIC-2. CLIC-2 reduced increases in activity induced by ATP or adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate. Depression of channel activity by CLIC-2 was greater in the presence of 100 microM cytoplasmic Ca2+ than with 100 nM or 10 microM Ca2+. Further, CLIC-2 prevented the usual approximately 50-fold increase in activity when the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration was increased from 100 nM to 100 microM. The results show that CLIC-2 interacts with the RyR protein by a mechanism that does not require oxidation, but is influenced by a conserved Cys residue at position 30. CLIC-2 is one of only a few cytosolic inhibitors of cardiac RyR2 channels, and may suppress their activity during diastole and during stress. CLIC-2 provides a unique probe for substate activity, coupled gating and ligand-induced activation of cardiac RyR channels.[1]


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