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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Giant cells: contradiction to two-hit model of tuber formation?

1. Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the formation of hamartomatous lesions in many organs, including brain, heart or kidneys. It has been found that TSC is caused by the mutation in one of two tumor suppressor genes: TSC1 or TSC2, encoding hamartin and tuberin, respectively. 2. According to Knudson's two-hit model of tumorigenesis, second-hit mutation and resulting loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of a tumor suppressor gene is necessary for tumor formation. In fact, LOH is commonly found in several types of hamartomas formed in the process of tuberous sclerosis, but, interestingly, not in brain lesions, containing characteristic giant cells. 3. In the present paper we review literature covering origination of giant cells and present several hypotheses explaining why in spite of the presence of hamartin and tuberin, brain lesions form in TSC patients.[1]


  1. Giant cells: contradiction to two-hit model of tuber formation? Jozwiak, J., Jozwiak, S. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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