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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

An infrared and X-ray spectroscopic study of the reactions of 2-chlorophenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and chlorobenzene with model cuO/silica fly ash surfaces.

The surface-mediated reactions of 2-chlorophenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and chlorobenzene were studied using CuO/ SiO2 as a fly ash surrogate. These compounds served as model precursors that have been implicated in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). With FTIR, we determined that reactions of the model precursors with a substrate composed of CuO dispersed on silica result in the formation of a mixture of surface-bound phenolate and carboxylate partial oxidation products from 200 to 500 degrees C. Chemisorption of 2-chlorophenol and 1,2-dichlorobenzene resulted in the formation of identical surface-bound species. Using X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, we measured the time- and temperature-dependent reduction of Cu(II) in a fly ash surrogate during reaction with each precursor. It was demonstrated that CuI2O is the major reduction product in each case. The rate of Cu(II) reduction could be described using pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics with Arrhenius activation energies for reduction of Cu(II) of 112, 101, and 88 kJ mol(-1) for 2-chlorophenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, respectively. We demonstrate that chlorinated phenol and chlorinated benzene both chemisorb to form chlorophenolate. Although chlorinated phenols chemisorb at a faster rate, chlorinated benzenes are found at much higher concentrations in incinerator effluents. The implication is that chlorinated benzenes may form 10 times more chlorophenolate precursors to PCDD/Fs than chlorinated phenols in combustion systems.[1]


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