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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Circadian clock and cell cycle gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cells and in the developing mouse mammary gland.

Mouse mammary epithelial cells (HC-11) and mammary tissues were analyzed for developmental changes in circadian clock, cellular proliferation, and differentiation marker genes. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 were elevated in differentiated HC-11 cells, whereas Per2 mRNA levels were higher in undifferentiated cells. This differentiation-dependent profile of clock gene expression was consistent with that observed in mouse mammary glands, as Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA levels were elevated in late pregnant and lactating mammary tissues, whereas Per2 expression was higher in proliferating virgin and early pregnant glands. In both HC-11 cells and mammary glands, elevated Per2 expression was positively correlated with c-Myc and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels, whereas Per1 and Bmal1 expression changed in conjunction with beta-casein mRNA levels. Interestingly, developmental stage had differential effects on rhythms of clock gene expression in the mammary gland. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may play a role in mouse mammary gland development and differentiation.[1]


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