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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

NDELA and nickel modulation of triazine disposition in skin.

Cutting fluids can become contaminated with metals (e.g., nickel, Ni) and nitrosamines (e.g., N-nitrosodiethanolamine, NDELA) and there is concern that these classes of contaminants can modulate dermal disposition and ultimately the toxicity of cutting fluid additives, such as irritant biocides (e.g., triazine). Biocides are added to these formulations to prevent bacterial degradation of commercial cutting fluids. The purpose of this study was to assess the dermal absorption and skin deposition of 14C-triazine when topically applied to porcine skin in an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell system as aqueous soluble oil (mineral oil, MO) or aqueous synthetic (polyethylene glycol, PEG) mixtures. 14C-Triazine mixtures were formulated with NDELA and/or Ni, or with a combination of three additional cutting fluid additives; namely, 5% linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), 5% triethanolamine (TEA) and 5% sulfurized ricinoleic acid. Neither Ni nor NDELA was absorbed during these 8-h studies. However, 14C-triazine absorption ranged from 2.72 to 3.29% dose in MO and 2.29-2.88% dose in PEG with significantly greater triazine absorption in MO than PEG when all additives and contaminates were present. The difference between these two diluents was most pronounced when NDELA and/or Ni were present in cutting fluids. These contaminants also enhanced triazine deposition on the skin surface and skin tissues especially with PEG-based mixtures. In essence, the dermal disposition of irritant biocides could be dependent on whether the worker is exposed to a soluble oil or synthetic fluid when these contaminants are present. Workers should therefore not only be concerned about dermatotoxicity of these contaminants, but also the modulated dermal disposition of cutting fluid additives when these contaminants are present in cutting fluid formulations.[1]


  1. NDELA and nickel modulation of triazine disposition in skin. Baynes, R.E., Brooks, J.D., Barlow, B.M., Riviere, J.E. Toxicology and industrial health. (2005) [Pubmed]
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