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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Vickers hardness studies of calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite urinary stones.

PURPOSE: To measure the hardness of two types of urinary stones: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; CaC2O4 . H2O) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite; CaHPO4 . 2H2O). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of 28 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 22 brushite stones was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Stone specimens were embedded in crystallographic resin, polished, and subjected to indentation tests using a Vickers tester. The hardness was calculated from measuring the diagonal lengths of the residual indentation on the specimen using the appropriate equation. RESULTS: The COM stones showed hardness values ranging from 15.3 to 64.2 HV with a mean of 35.8 +/- 13.3, while brushite stones ranged from 10.1 to 46.1 HV with a mean of 26.5 +/- 15. 1. The results of ANOVA showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two stone types. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones exhibited greater hardness than brushite stones when assessed with Vickers studies.[1]


  1. Vickers hardness studies of calcium oxalate monohydrate and brushite urinary stones. Bouropoulos, N., Mouzakis, D.E., Bithelis, G., Liatsikos, E. J. Endourol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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