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Chemical Compound Review

Calcium-41     calcium

Synonyms: AC1O3TEL, 14092-95-6, Calcium, isotope of mass 41
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Disease relevance of calcium


Psychiatry related information on calcium

  • The 5-HT(10 microM)-induced intraplatelet Ca mobilization was measured in 98 nonmedicated depressive patients (24 bipolar disorders, 51 melancholic major depressive disorders, and 23 non-melancholic major depressive disorders) [5].
  • Endothelin-1 as a putative modulator of erectile dysfunction. II. Calcium mobilization in cultured human corporal smooth muscle cells [6].
  • REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Calcium antagonists reduce the proportion of patients with poor outcome and ischemic neurological deficits after aneurysmal SAH; the risk reduction for case fatality alone is not statistically significant [7].
  • The myocardial cell cultures from the UT group showed complete loss of beating when the calcium (Ca++) antagonist, V, was added to the cultures for 1 h or more; the T group was able to show some beating at comparable concentrations and durations of exposure with V [8].
  • Functional bladder capacity and Urine Calcium/creatinine quota were investigated in 13 patients with primary nocturnal enuresis, 15 former enuretic patients and 15 controls [9].

High impact information on calcium

  • 4) Calcium ions in activation are derived from two sources: an internal source, probably the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and an external source, across the muscle membrane [10].
  • Here we show that neural activity directs the mRNA of the Drosophila Ca(2+), Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CaMKII), to postsynaptic sites, where it is rapidly translated [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Calcium supplementation does not prevent bone loss during lactation and only slightly enhances the gain in bone density after weaning [12].
  • LDL-receptor structure. Calcium cages, acid baths and recycling receptors [13].
  • The results suggest that this current is involved in repolarization of the action potential and consequently may regulate Ca2+ entry into the neurone during spike activity [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of calcium

  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Calcium- and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated Cl- secretions in the human colon are abnormal in cystic fibrosis, but the effect of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) is unknown [15].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Calcium phosphate binds unconjugated bilirubin in vitro, and dietary calcium phosphate supplementation reduces the serum bilirubin level in rats with hereditary unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (Gunn rats) [16].
  • To test the hypothesis that iPTH levels can remain elevated even in the presence of hypercalcemia in lactation, a diet containing 1.2% Ca and 0.4% phosphorus (P) was fed to lactating rats in three experiments (A, B, and C) to achieve serum ionized calcium (ICa) levels approximately 10% above levels for nonmated (NM) controls [17].
  • Although the bone resorption inhibitor aminopropylidene diphosphonate fully corrected urinary Ca excretion and reduced plasma Ca from 3.04 +/- 0.07 to 2.44 +/- 0.21 mM (p less than 0.05), this latter value remained considerably higher than in TPTX control rats (1.54 +/- 0.12 mM, p less than 0.01) [18].
  • Use of Tobramycin-Impregnated Calcium Sulphate Pellets in Addition to Oral Antibiotics: An alternative treatment to minor amputation in a case of diabetic foot osteomyelitis [19].

Biological context of calcium


Anatomical context of calcium

  • The coupling mechanism between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ion (Ca2+) stores and plasma membrane (PM) store-operated channels (SOCs) is crucial to Ca2+ signaling but has eluded detection [25].
  • Thus targeted to CD4, the gp120-specific antibody functions as an antibody to CD4; it cross-links and modulates the CD4 molecules and suppresses the activation of T cells as measured by mobilization of intracellular calcium (Ca2i+) [26].
  • This directly correlates with decreased FcgammaRIIB-mediated suppression of B cell receptor-induced calcium (Ca2+) response in those B cells [27].
  • (b) Calcium influx into inverted plasma membrane vesicles from uremic rats via the ATP-dependent calcium transport mechanism is increased when compared with normal [28].
  • Expression of dihydropyridine receptor (Ca2+ channel) and calsequestrin genes in the myocardium of patients with end-stage heart failure [29].

Associations of calcium with other chemical compounds

  • Here, by using mitochondrially targeted aequorin proteins with different Ca2+ affinities, we show that half of the chromaffin-cell mitochondria exhibit surprisingly rapid millimolar Ca2+ transients upon stimulation of cells with acetylcholine, caffeine or high concentrations of potassium ions [23].
  • Gentamicin blockade of slow Ca++ channels in atrial myocardium of guinea pigs [30].
  • In Calcium Green-5N-loaded trp mutants, which lack a large fraction of the Ca2+ permeability underlying the light-evoked inward current, the Ca2+ signal was smaller relative to wild-type photoreceptors [31].
  • NUCLEOPORIN85 Is Required for Calcium Spiking, Fungal and Bacterial Symbioses, and Seed Production in Lotus japonicus [32].
  • To test in the intact cell whether the rise of [Ca2+]i precedes activation of the K+ conductance (as expected if Ca2+ is the intracellular messenger mediating this response), [Ca2+]i and membrane voltage were measured simultaneously in carbachol-stimulated rat parotid acinar cells by using fura-2 and an intracellular microelectrode [33].

Gene context of calcium

  • Finally, peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining demonstrated that HCLs are induced by TPA/Ca2+, but not by SAC, to produce intracytoplasmic IL-6 [34].
  • In contrast, the fourth patient, a nonresponder to SAC or TPA/Ca2+, demonstrated increased DNA synthesis at day 3 when cocultured with IL-4 and IL-5 [34].
  • CT in the presence of PTH transiently inhibited the release of Ca up to 24--48 h after its addition [35].
  • Over the 10-100 nM concentration range SRIF also reduced voltage-dependent Ca2+ current [36].
  • The effects of the mutation on free CaM are minor: Calcium binding, and overall secondary and tertiary structure are indistinguishable from those of wild type [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of calcium

  • We have studied spatial Ca2+ distribution in hair cells filled with the low affinity fluorescent indicator Calcium Green 5N using real-time confocal microscopy and whole-cell recording [38].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Calcium supplementation does not decrease rectal mucosal proliferation, as measured by PCNA (and BrdU) immunohistochemistry, in patients with previous large-bowel adenomas [39].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Calcium-activated tissue transglutaminase autoantibody ELISA is highly accurate in detecting untreated celiac disease [40].
  • In the absence of global increases in calcium, confocal microscopy using Calcium Green-1 dextran indicator dye revealed localized calcium transients in the perinuclear region [41].
  • To investigate the effect of aging on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+), intracellular pH (pHi), and mechanical performance were measured in isolated perfused rabbit hearts [42].


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  3. Alpha-haemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli induces Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Uhlén, P., Laestadius, A., Jahnukainen, T., Söderblom, T., Bäckhed, F., Celsi, G., Brismar, H., Normark, S., Aperia, A., Richter-Dahlfors, A. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
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  6. Endothelin-1 as a putative modulator of erectile dysfunction. II. Calcium mobilization in cultured human corporal smooth muscle cells. Zhao, W., Christ, G.J. J. Urol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Calcium antagonists for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Feigin, V.L., Rinkel, G.J., Algra, A., Vermeulen, M., van Gijn, J. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2000) [Pubmed]
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  11. Synaptic protein synthesis associated with memory is regulated by the RISC pathway in Drosophila. Ashraf, S.I., McLoon, A.L., Sclarsic, S.M., Kunes, S. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. Kalkwarf, H.J., Specker, B.L., Bianchi, D.C., Ranz, J., Ho, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. LDL-receptor structure. Calcium cages, acid baths and recycling receptors. Brown, M.S., Herz, J., Goldstein, J.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Action potential repolarization may involve a transient, Ca2+-sensitive outward current in a vertebrate neurone. MacDermott, A.B., Weight, F.F. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin-mediated colonic Cl- secretion is absent in cystic fibrosis. Goldstein, J.L., Sahi, J., Bhuva, M., Layden, T.J., Rao, M.C. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Oral calcium phosphate: a new therapy for Crigler-Najjar disease? Van der Veere, C.N., Jansen, P.L., Sinaasappel, M., Van der Meer, R., Van der Sijs, H., Rammeloo, J.A., Goyens, P., Van Nieuwkerk, C.M., Oude Elferink, R.P. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypercalcemia fails to suppress elevated serum parathyroid hormone concentrations during lactation in rats. Garner, S.C., Boass, A., Toverud, S.U. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of bone and kidney in parathyroid hormone-related peptide-induced hypercalcemia in rats. Rizzoli, R., Caverzasio, J., Chapuy, M.C., Martin, T.J., Bonjour, J.P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of Tobramycin-Impregnated Calcium Sulphate Pellets in Addition to Oral Antibiotics: An alternative treatment to minor amputation in a case of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Salgami, E.V., Bowling, F.L., Whitehouse, R.W., Boulton, A.J. Diabetes Care (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Signal transduction. Calcium channels--link locally, act globally. Ikeda, S.R. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Bucher, H.C., Cook, R.J., Guyatt, G.H., Lang, J.D., Cook, D.J., Hatala, R., Hunt, D.L. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Correlates of aldosterone-induced increases in Cai2+ and Isc suggest that Cai2+ is the second messenger for stimulation of apical membrane conductance. Petzel, D., Ganz, M.B., Nestler, E.J., Lewis, J.J., Goldenring, J., Akcicek, F., Hayslett, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Chromaffin-cell stimulation triggers fast millimolar mitochondrial Ca2+ transients that modulate secretion. Montero, M., Alonso, M.T., Carnicero, E., Cuchillo-Ibáñez, I., Albillos, A., García, A.G., García-Sancho, J., Alvarez, J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Calcium-channel blockade and incidence of cancer in aged populations. Pahor, M., Guralnik, J.M., Ferrucci, L., Corti, M.C., Salive, M.E., Cerhan, J.R., Wallace, R.B., Havlik, R.J. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Requirement of the inositol trisphosphate receptor for activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels. Ma, H.T., Patterson, R.L., van Rossum, D.B., Birnbaumer, L., Mikoshiba, K., Gill, D.L. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Synergism between HIV gp120 and gp120-specific antibody in blocking human T cell activation. Mittler, R.S., Hoffmann, M.K. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Selective dysregulation of the FcgammaIIB receptor on memory B cells in SLE. Mackay, M., Stanevsky, A., Wang, T., Aranow, C., Li, M., Koenig, S., Ravetch, J.V., Diamond, B. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Calcium transport abnormality in uremic rat brain synaptosomes. Fraser, C.L., Sarnacki, P., Arieff, A.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of dihydropyridine receptor (Ca2+ channel) and calsequestrin genes in the myocardium of patients with end-stage heart failure. Takahashi, T., Allen, P.D., Lacro, R.V., Marks, A.R., Dennis, A.R., Schoen, F.J., Grossman, W., Marsh, J.D., Izumo, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Gentamicin blockade of slow Ca++ channels in atrial myocardium of guinea pigs. Adams, H.R., Durrett, L.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. The light response of Drosophila photoreceptors is accompanied by an increase in cellular calcium: effects of specific mutations. Peretz, A., Suss-Toby, E., Rom-Glas, A., Arnon, A., Payne, R., Minke, B. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. NUCLEOPORIN85 Is Required for Calcium Spiking, Fungal and Bacterial Symbioses, and Seed Production in Lotus japonicus. Saito, K., Yoshikawa, M., Yano, K., Miwa, H., Uchida, H., Asamizu, E., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Imaizumi-Anraku, H., Umehara, Y., Kouchi, H., Murooka, Y., Szczyglowski, K., Downie, J.A., Parniske, M., Hayashi, M., Kawaguchi, M. Plant Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Physiological localization of an agonist-sensitive pool of Ca2+ in parotid acinar cells. Foskett, J.K., Gunter-Smith, P.J., Melvin, J.E., Turner, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Response patterns of hairy cell leukemia to B-cell mitogens and growth factors. Barut, B.A., Cochran, M.K., O'Hara, C., Anderson, K.C. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on osteoclast formation in vitro. Feldman, R.S., Krieger, N.S., Tashjian, A.H. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Somatostatin blocks Ca2+ action potential activity in prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor cells through coordinate actions on K+ and Ca2+ conductances. Mollard, P., Vacher, P., Dufy, B., Barker, J.L. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Biochemical properties of V91G calmodulin: A calmodulin point mutation that deregulates muscle contraction in Drosophila. Wang, B., Martin, S.R., Newman, R.A., Hamilton, S.L., Shea, M.A., Bayley, P.M., Beckingham, K.M. Protein Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Confocal imaging of calcium microdomains and calcium extrusion in turtle hair cells. Tucker, T., Fettiplace, R. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Calcium supplementation and rectal mucosal proliferation: a randomized controlled trial. Baron, J.A., Tosteson, T.D., Wargovich, M.J., Sandler, R., Mandel, J., Bond, J., Haile, R., Summers, R., van Stolk, R., Rothstein, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Tissue transglutaminase autoantibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting celiac disease. Sulkanen, S., Halttunen, T., Laurila, K., Kolho, K.L., Korponay-Szabó, I.R., Sarnesto, A., Savilahti, E., Collin, P., Mäki, M. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Local perinuclear calcium signals associated with mitosis-entry in early sea urchin embryos. Wilding, M., Wright, E.M., Patel, R., Ellis-Davies, G., Whitaker, M. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  42. Effect of aging on intracellular Ca2+, pHi, and contractility during ischemia and reperfusion. Ataka, K., Chen, D., Levitsky, S., Jimenez, E., Feinberg, H. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
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