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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dietary modulation of p-nonylphenol-induced polycystic kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

We had previously found that p-nonylphenol (NP) at 1000-2000 ppm in a soy- and alfalfa-free diet induced severe polycystic kidney disease ( PKD) in both male and female pups exposed from gestation day 7 through postnatal day (PND) 50 and hypothesized that differences in dietary components contributed to the severity of lesions relative to those reported in other studies using similar doses of NP. The present study investigated the dietary modulation of NP-induced PKD using the same exposure regimen with 2000 ppm NP in four different diets: the natural ingredient soy- and alfalfa-free diet that had been used in the earlier study, Purina 5K96; two defined diets AIN-93G, designated AIN-CAS, and a modified AIN-93G with soy protein isolate replacing casein as the protein source (AIN-SPI); and the commonly used natural ingredient diet Purina 5001 (P5001). Serum isoflavone levels were negligible in animals fed the soy-free AIN-CAS and 5K96 diets and were 2- to 18-fold higher in animals fed P5001 than in those fed AIN-SPI. Consumption of P5001 was significantly greater than consumption of the other diets, and those animals fed P5001 were generally significantly heavier than animals receiving the other diets. NP significantly reduced body weight gain in male pups regardless of the diet fed. There was no evidence of NP-induced kidney toxicity in male pups at PND 2, 14, or 21 or in the dams. In PND 50 male pups, serum blood urea nitrogen was significantly elevated by NP in all diet groups. Urine volume and urinary N-acetyl beta-glucuronidase were significantly increased by NP in the soy-free 5K96 and AIN-CAS diet groups. Relative kidney weights were increased by NP in all diet groups except P5001, with the greatest increase in AIN-CAS and 5K96 diet groups. Microscopic evaluation of kidneys from the PND 50 males showed that NP induced PKD in all diet groups but with marked variation in the severity depending on the diet. PKD was severe in 100% of the NP-treated animals in the AIN-CAS and 5K96 groups, moderate in 88% of the AIN-SPI diet group, and mild in only 40% of the P5001 diet group. Thus, diet can significantly modulate the development of PKD induced by dietary NP in rats. Soy components, as well as other complex dietary factors, may account for the level of protection afforded by the P5001 diet.[1]


  1. Dietary modulation of p-nonylphenol-induced polycystic kidneys in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cooper, S., Latendresse, J.R., Doerge, D.R., Twaddle, N.C., Fu, X., Delclos, K.B. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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