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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Pregnancy


Psychiatry related information on Pregnancy


High impact information on Pregnancy

  • Thus, to initiate labor, it might be essential to generate sufficient PGF(2 alpha) to overcome the luteotrophic action of OT in late gestation [11].
  • The cessation of secretory function by the corpus luteum of pregnancy at the end of gestation is apparently actively induced [12].
  • We found that these cyclin D1(-/-)D2(-/-)D3(-/-) mice develop until mid/late gestation and die due to heart abnormalities combined with a severe anemia [13].
  • Rtel(-/-) mice died between days 10 and 11.5 of gestation with defects in the nervous system, heart, vasculature, and extraembryonic tissues [14].
  • Maternal and fetal outcomes of subsequent pregnancies in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pregnancy


Biological context of Pregnancy


Anatomical context of Pregnancy

  • In pregnancies greater than 40 weeks, a further increase in total amniotic-fluid cortisol was observed, and values greater than 120 ng per milliliter were found only in patients of this group [26].
  • The increases in fetal serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine-binding globulin, and total and free T4 and T3 during gestation reflect increasing maturation of the pituitary, thyroid, and liver [27].
  • High levels of myogenin transcripts are present in the myotomal region of somites at 8.5 days of gestation in the mouse [28].
  • Embryos up to day 8 of gestation and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells express only a single lamin species closely resembling, if not identical to, lamin B. Lamins A and/or C were detected in fertilized eggs, but disappear during the first 2-4 cleavage divisions, only reappearing in 8 day post-implantation embryos [29].
  • In the present study, continuous infusion of androstenedione to 0.8 gestation monkeys resulted in the premature occurrence of labor-type myometrial activity and increases in maternal plasma estrogen, oxytocin and amnion fibronectin concentrations similar to those measured at normal-term labor [30].

Associations of Pregnancy with chemical compounds

  • We observed another toxic effect of D- mannose during culture of rat embryos from the early head-fold stage to the 26-to-29-somite stage (Days 9-1/2 through 11-1 of gestation) [31].
  • Treatment with exogenous estrogen was mandatory up to the 11th week of gestation, and treatment with progesterone until the 18th to 22nd weeks [32].
  • These preliminary observations suggest that cocaine influences the outcome of pregnancy as well as the neurologic behavior of the newborn, but a full assessment will require a larger number of pregnancies and longer follow-up [33].
  • METHODS: We administered 600 mg of mifepristone and then 400 microg of misoprostol two days later to 2121 women seeking termination of their pregnancies at 17 centers [34].
  • BACKGROUND: Mifepristone and a prostaglandin have been used successfully to terminate pregnancy in Europe and China. We report the results of a large U.S. study of mifepristone and misoprostol in women with pregnancies of up to nine weeks' duration [34].

Gene context of Pregnancy

  • H19 biallelic expression is confined to the placenta until 10 weeks of gestation, after which it becomes exclusively maternal, and does not affect allele-specificity or levels of IGF2 expression [35].
  • We studied 57 pregnancies of 41 women with rheumatoid arthritis, 18 prospectively and 39 retrospectively [36].
  • Normally, Myf-5 expression becomes markedly reduced at day 12 of gestation when MyoD mRNA first appears [37].
  • Analysis of mice homozygous for the mutant allele indicate that Brca1 is critical for normal development, as these mice died in utero between 10 and 13 days of gestation (E10-E13) [38].
  • The defect is nuclear-encoded and embryos that inherit a deletion of the Tme locus from their mother die at day 15 of gestation [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pregnancy


  1. The effect of antenatal phenobarbital therapy on neonatal intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants. Shankaran, S., Papile, L.A., Wright, L.L., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Mele, L., Lemons, J.A., Korones, S.B., Stevenson, D.K., Donovan, E.F., Stoll, B.J., Fanaroff, A.A., Oh, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine. Chambers, C.D., Johnson, K.A., Dick, L.M., Felix, R.J., Jones, K.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defect Prevention. Berry, R.J., Li, Z., Erickson, J.D., Li, S., Moore, C.A., Wang, H., Mulinare, J., Zhao, P., Wong, L.Y., Gindler, J., Hong, S.X., Correa, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Neonatal complications after the administration of indomethacin for preterm labor. Norton, M.E., Merrill, J., Cooper, B.A., Kuller, J.A., Clyman, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Klebanoff, M.A., Levine, R.J., DerSimonian, R., Clemens, J.D., Wilkins, D.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. A retroviral gene trap insertion into the histone 3.3A gene causes partial neonatal lethality, stunted growth, neuromuscular deficits and male sub-fertility in transgenic mice. Couldrey, C., Carlton, M.B., Nolan, P.M., Colledge, W.H., Evans, M.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of elimination of maternal circadian rhythms during pregnancy on the postnatal development of circadian corticosterone rhythm in blinded infantile rats. Honma, S., Honma, K.I., Shirakawa, T., Hiroshige, T. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Ontogeny of androgen receptors in fetal guinea pig brain. Toyooka, K.R., Connolly, P.B., Handa, R.J., Resko, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and women's employment. Haertel, U., Heiss, G., Filipiak, B., Doering, A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure in newborns. Bateman, D.A., Ng, S.K., Hansen, C.A., Heagarty, M.C. American journal of public health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Gimpl, G., Fahrenholz, F. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Uterine luteolytic hormone: a physiological role for prostaglandin F2alpha. Horton, E.W., Poyser, N.L. Physiol. Rev. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Mouse development and cell proliferation in the absence of D-cyclins. Kozar, K., Ciemerych, M.A., Rebel, V.I., Shigematsu, H., Zagozdzon, A., Sicinska, E., Geng, Y., Yu, Q., Bhattacharya, S., Bronson, R.T., Akashi, K., Sicinski, P. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of murine telomere length by Rtel: an essential gene encoding a helicase-like protein. Ding, H., Schertzer, M., Wu, X., Gertsenstein, M., Selig, S., Kammori, M., Pourvali, R., Poon, S., Vulto, I., Chavez, E., Tam, P.P., Nagy, A., Lansdorp, P.M. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Maternal and fetal outcomes of subsequent pregnancies in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Elkayam, U., Tummala, P.P., Rao, K., Akhter, M.W., Karaalp, I.S., Wani, O.R., Hameed, A., Gviazda, I., Shotan, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Toronto Trihospital Gestational Diabetes Project Investigators. Naylor, C.D., Sermer, M., Chen, E., Farine, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate loading test in the diagnosis of complicated pregnancies. Tulchinsky, D., Osathanondh, R., Finn, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Risk of congenital abnormality after inadvertent rubella vaccination of pregnant women. Modlin, J.F., Herrmann, K., Brandling-Bennett, A.D., Eddins, D.L., Hayden, G.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Ultrasonographic fetal surveillance in the management of the isoimmunized pregnancy. Frigoletto, F.D., Greene, M.F., Benacerraf, B.R., Barss, V.A., Saltzman, D.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent lung disease in preterm infants. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. Ballard, R.A., Ballard, P.L., Cnaan, A., Pinto-Martin, J., Davis, D.J., Padbury, J.F., Phibbs, R.H., Parer, J.T., Hart, M.C., Mannino, F.L., Sawai, S.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Risks of anticoagulant therapy in pregnant women with artificial heart valves. Iturbe-Alessio, I., Fonseca, M.C., Mutchinik, O., Santos, M.A., Zajarías, A., Salazar, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Craniofacial abnormalities induced by ectopic expression of the homeobox gene Hox-1.1 in transgenic mice. Balling, R., Mutter, G., Gruss, P., Kessel, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurofibromatosis type 1 due to germ-line mosaicism in a clinically normal father. Lázaro, C., Ravella, A., Gaona, A., Volpini, V., Estivill, X. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The transcription factor NF-ATc is essential for cardiac valve formation. Ranger, A.M., Grusby, M.J., Hodge, M.R., Gravallese, E.M., de la Brousse, F.C., Hoey, T., Mickanin, C., Baldwin, H.S., Glimcher, L.H. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Eye malformations in rats: induction by prenatal exposure to nickel carbonyl. Sunderman, F.W., Allpass, P.R., Mitchell, J.M., Baselt, R.C., Albert, D.M. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Total cortisol in amniotic fluid and fetal lung maturation. de Fencl, M., Tulchinsky, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Maturation of the secretion of thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the fetus. Thorpe-Beeston, J.G., Nicolaides, K.H., Felton, C.V., Butler, J., McGregor, A.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Myogenin, a factor regulating myogenesis, has a domain homologous to MyoD. Wright, W.E., Sassoon, D.A., Lin, V.K. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Teratocarcinoma stem cells and early mouse embryos contain only a single major lamin polypeptide closely resembling lamin B. Stewart, C., Burke, B. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Production of premature delivery in pregnant rhesus monkeys by androstenedione infusion. Mecenas, C.A., Giussani, D.A., Owiny, J.R., Jenkins, S.L., Wu, W.X., Honnebier, B.O., Lockwood, C.J., Kong, L., Guller, S., Nathanielsz, P.W. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. The honeybee syndrome - implications of the teratogenicity of mannose in rat-embryo culture. Freinkel, N., Lewis, N.J., Akazawa, S., Roth, S.I., Gorman, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Artificially induced endometrial cycles and establishment of pregnancies in the absence of ovaries. Navot, D., Laufer, N., Kopolovic, J., Rabinowitz, R., Birkenfeld, A., Lewin, A., Granat, M., Margalioth, E.J., Schenker, J.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Cocaine use in pregnancy. Chasnoff, I.J., Burns, W.J., Schnoll, S.H., Burns, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Early pregnancy termination with mifepristone and misoprostol in the United States. Spitz, I.M., Bardin, C.W., Benton, L., Robbins, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Establishment of functional imprinting of the H19 gene in human developing placentae. Jinno, Y., Ikeda, Y., Yun, K., Maw, M., Masuzaki, H., Fukuda, H., Inuzuka, K., Fujishita, A., Ohtani, Y., Okimoto, T. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Maternal-fetal disparity in HLA class II alloantigens and the pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis. Nelson, J.L., Hughes, K.A., Smith, A.G., Nisperos, B.B., Branchaud, A.M., Hansen, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Inactivation of MyoD in mice leads to up-regulation of the myogenic HLH gene Myf-5 and results in apparently normal muscle development. Rudnicki, M.A., Braun, T., Hinuma, S., Jaenisch, R. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Brca1 deficiency results in early embryonic lethality characterized by neuroepithelial abnormalities. Gowen, L.C., Johnson, B.L., Latour, A.M., Sulik, K.K., Koller, B.H. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. The mouse insulin-like growth factor type-2 receptor is imprinted and closely linked to the Tme locus. Barlow, D.P., Stöger, R., Herrmann, B.G., Saito, K., Schweifer, N. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Langer, O., Conway, D.L., Berkus, M.D., Xenakis, E.M., Gonzales, O. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Stimulated vasopressin synthesis by a fetal hypothalamic factor. Pearson, D.B., Goodman, R., Sachs, H. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  42. Spontaneous postpartum regression of pituitary mass with return of function. Leiba, S., Schindel, B., Weinstein, R., Lidor, I., Friedman, S., Matz, S. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  43. Cesarean delivery in relation to birth weight and gestational glucose tolerance: pathophysiology or practice style? Toronto Trihospital Gestational Diabetes Investigators. Naylor, C.D., Sermer, M., Chen, E., Sykora, K. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Birth defects and vaginal spermicides. Shapiro, S., Slone, D., Heinonen, O.P., Kaufman, D.W., Rosenberg, L., Mitchell, A.A., Helmrich, S.P. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
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