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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The interactive effects of binary mixtures of three antifouling biocides and three heavy metals against the marine algae Chaetoceros gracilis.

Three of the most commonly used antifouling booster biocides that are usually combined with copper or copper compounds are Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and Zn pyrithione. This study represents an assessment of the interactive effects of the antifouling biocides combined with each other, and with three heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Zn) in binary mixtures, on the marine algae Chaetoceros gracilis. Seventy-two hour growth inhibition tests were carried out, and the IC50 values of the chemicals were determined along with growth inhibition (%) for several concentrations. The joint effect of the binary mixtures of all the chemicals was assessed by using two models, concentration addition model and the model of probabilities. The following increasing order of toxicity was obtained: Cd < Zn < Cu < Diuron < Zn pyrithione < Irgarol 1051. The interactive effects of the organic chemicals combined with each other on the growth of Ch. gracilis were firmly synergistic. Irgarol 1051 combined with Cd performed synergistic effects, and Zn pyrithione with copper and cadmium action was strictly antagonistic, and the results of the two models were in agreement in almost all mixtures.[1]


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