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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hormone, cytokine, and nutritional regulation of sepsis-induced increases in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in skeletal muscle.

Various atrophic stimuli increase two muscle-specific E3 ligases, muscle RING finger 1 ( MuRF1) and atrogin-1, and knockout mice for these "atrogenes" display resistance to denervation-induced atrophy. The present study determined whether increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA are mediated by overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids or inflammatory cytokines in adult rats and whether atrogene expression can be downregulated by anabolic agents such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the nutrient-signaling amino acid leucine. Both atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius was upregulated dose and time dependently by endotoxin. Additionally, peritonitis produced by cecal ligation and puncture increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius (but not soleus or heart) by 8 h, which was sustained for 72 and 24 h, respectively. Whereas the sepsis-induced increase in atrogin-1 expression was completely prevented by IGF-I, the increased MuRF1 was not altered. In contrast to the IGF-I effect, the sepsis-induced increased mRNA of both atrogenes was unresponsive to either acute or repetitive administration of leucine. Whereas exogenous infusion of TNF-alpha increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in gastrocnemius, pretreatment of septic rats with the TNF antagonist TNF-binding protein did not prevent increased expression of either atrogene. Similarly, whereas dexamethasone increased atrogene expression, pretreatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 failed to ameliorate the sepsis- induced increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Thus, under in vivo conditions in mature adult rats, the sepsis-induced increase in muscle atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA appears both glucocorticoid and TNF independent and is unresponsive to leucine.[1]


  1. Hormone, cytokine, and nutritional regulation of sepsis-induced increases in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in skeletal muscle. Frost, R.A., Nystrom, G.J., Jefferson, L.S., Lang, C.H. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
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