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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protection from chlordecone-amplified carbon tetrachloride toxicity by cyanidanol: biochemical and histological studies.

Chlordecone (CD) pretreatment is well known to greatly potentiate CCl4 toxicity. Previous work has shown that suppression of hepatocellular regeneration permits an ordinarily limited liver injury to progress in an irreversible manner. Insufficient hepatocellular energy has been proposed as a mechanism for suppressed hepatocellular regeneration. Since cyanidanol reportedly increases cellular ATP, this compound was employed to test the above hypothesis. The present study was designed to investigate the sequential biochemical and histological changes over a time course of 120 hr after CCl4 administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were maintained on 10 ppm CD diet for 15 days and were challenged with either a standard protocol dose (100 microliters/kg) or a low (50 microliters/kg, L) dose of CCl4. Cyanidanol pretreatment at 48, 24, and 2 hr before CCl4 administration to rats maintained on CD diet resulted in 100 or 70% animal survival, for CCl4 (L) or the standard dose of CCl4, respectively. Preliminary studies indicated that neither simultaneous nor subsequent administration of cyanidanol with CCl4 challenge affords such protection. Prior treatment with cyanidanol and a latency period were found necessary for protection. Without cyanidanol, CD + CCl4 combination caused 50 and 100% lethality after CCl4 (L) and the standard dose, respectively, while the same doses of CCl4 alone did not cause lethal effects. Plasma enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase) in control rats showed only moderate and transient increases after CCl4 challenge. The combination of CD + standard dose of CCl4 resulted in progressive and marked elevations of all three serum enzymes at all time intervals until the death of animals. Cyanidanol pretreatment resulted in significant decline in the plasma enzyme elevations at later time points. Cyanidanol pretreatment increased hepatic ATP synthesis in control or CD rats. CCl4 administration to control rats did not alter hepatic ATP levels, while in CD-fed rats hepatic ATP levels were significantly decreased. Cyanidanol pretreatment to CD + CCl4 combination-treated rats did not significantly prevent the decline in hepatic ATP and glycogen levels. However, in the surviving rats a recovery in these parameters was observed. Light microscopic examination of livers from animals that received CCl4 alone revealed only marginal cellular injury, at early time points only. However, CCl4 challenge to rats maintained on CD resulted in progressive injury, characterized by the appearance of ballooned cells, necrotic cells, and cells with lipid droplets in the liver. Cyanidanol pretreatment to these rats caused decreased vacuolation and significantly reduced the progression of liver necrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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